The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure and DSM-IV based psychiatric diagnoses were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview and criminality on criminal records provided by the Finnish Legal Register Centre. After adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and family factors, the adolescents from single parent families, child welfare placements and those not living with their biological parents showed an increased risk of committing crimes at an earlier age than adolescents from two parent families. Lack of a safe and stable family environment has important implications for adolescents with severe mental disorder. When these adolescents are discharged from hospital, special attention should be focused on organizing stable and long term psychosocial support which compensates for the lack of stable family environment and seeks to prevent future adversities.
To explore family members' supportive interactions in palliative care and the emotional experiences that they associate with these interactions.
Qualitative individual interviews were performed with bereaved family members recruited from an urban palliative care service in Sweden. The interviews were analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis.
Five categories of supportive interactions with staff members were linked with emotional consequences: informational support, supportive encounters, professional focus of staff, a supportive environment, and bereavement support. Having a dialogue with family members nurtured certainty and security, supportive encounters gave a warm and comforting feeling, and bereavement support contributed to feelings of strength. Environmental factors contributed to dignity.
Supportive interactions with staff and within a home-like environment help to build resilience if tailored to the family member's own needs.
Research regarding experiences of nurses caring for family members with a cancer diagnosis is limited. To address this gap, a hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to explore lived experiences of five nurses caring for family members living with advanced cancer. Their experiences were fraught with tensions and conflicts as they balanced the roles of nurse and caregiver. At the heart of their experiences was a sense of being caught in a web of conflicting expectations. Their struggles of expectations stemmed from anticipating the illness trajectory, expectations from family, expectations from other health professionals, and expectations from the nurse caregivers of themselves. Conflict between their professional and personal lives was most challenging. Implications of this care-giving situation are described.
The aim of this study was to illuminate the lived experiences of families where a child had survived 7 years from a diagnosis of childhood cancer. This article describes one part of an inductive and longitudinal research project that included 17 families. Four families whose child was diagnosed with cancer 7 years previously were interviewed using a hermeneutical phenomenological approach. The families lived experience was described in one essential theme, "Living an everyday life through the child's cancer trajectory," further illuminated in 3 related themes: "Leaving the disease behind yet feeling its presence," "Being the same yet always different," and "Feeling stronger yet vulnerable." The results suggest that family members feel vulnerable even if a long period of time has passed since completion of treatment. To varied degrees they still may need support. When moving forward in life, the family members are helped if they can reconcile their memories and experiences derived from the childhood cancer trajectory.
Pregnancy is a time of transition and crisis when many families are challenged with the addition of an infant. Studies of this challenge are unknown for Icelandic families. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pregnancy and the young infant on family dynamics and the relationship between family dynamics and the infant's developing temperament. Fifty families completed the Family Dynamics Measure during the third trimester of pregnancy and when the infant was eight months old. Mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Mothers perceived a decrease in role reciprocity across this transition. More stable organized families had more rhythmic infants. There was no association between family structure and either family dynamics or infant temperament. After the birth of the child, fathers perceived more role reciprocity while mothers perceived more individuation and mutuality. Mothers of second infants reported greater individuation than mothers with first infants.
Based on a pilot evaluation of Canada's recently introduced Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB), the purpose of this paper is to highlight the experiences of family caregivers caring for people with non-malignant advanced chronic illness.
Using Patton's (1997) utilization-focused evaluation approach, 25 telephone interviews were conducted with three groups of family caregivers: those who had successfully applied for the CCB; those who were unsuccessful in their applications; those who had never applied for the benefit.
The CCB has a number of limitations, particularly for caregivers of patients diagnosed with non-malignant advanced chronic illness. The central limitations are: difficulties associated with accurate prognostication; limited definition of "family member"; insufficient length of the funding period.
By modelling similar programmes internationally, such as those in Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands, Canada would likely find the CCB to have greater relevance and accessibility to Canadian caregivers, particularly those caring for people with non-malignant advanced chronic illness.