To reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), most countries closed schools, despite uncertainty if school closures are an effective containment measure. At the onset of the pandemic, Swedish upper-secondary schools moved to online instruction, while lower-secondary schools remained open. This allows for a comparison of parents and teachers differently exposed to open and closed schools, but otherwise facing similar conditions. Leveraging rich Swedish register data, we connect all students and teachers in Sweden to their families and study the impact of moving to online instruction on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. We find that, among parents, exposure to open rather than closed schools resulted in a small increase in PCR-confirmed infections (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI [CI95] 1.03 to 1.32). Among lower-secondary teachers, the infection rate doubled relative to upper-secondary teachers (OR 2.01; CI95 1.52 to 2.67). This spilled over to the partners of lower-secondary teachers, who had a higher infection rate than their upper-secondary counterparts (OR 1.29; CI95 1.00 to 1.67). When analyzing COVID-19 diagnoses from healthcare visits and the incidence of severe health outcomes, results are similar for teachers, but weaker for parents and teachers' partners. The results for parents indicate that keeping lower-secondary schools open had minor consequences for the overall transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in society. The results for teachers suggest that measures to protect teachers could be considered.
Many children who take medication require it during school time, and their participation in school activities could depend on it. The aim of this study was to identify whether schools have guidelines for medication management and to explore teachers' perceptions about medication administration practices and the characteristics affecting these practices using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory as the framework.
A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted in Finland in 2010 covering a representative sample of comprehensive school teachers (n = 1700). The survey included sections on guidelines and practices for medication administration, beliefs about medicines, and background information on the respondent and the respondent's school. Quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis were used.
The response rate was 56% (928/1664). At the national level (macrosystem), teachers reported uncertainty about existing laws and guidelines, while at the local level (exosystem), most of the teachers reported having medication management guidelines (73% primary; 76% lower secondary school). However, a majority described guidelines instructing them not to administer medicines to pupils. Medication management practices were found to differ depending on the province and size of school. At the personal level (microsystem), practices were also affected by teachers' experience of, and views about, medicines.
No consistent medication administration guidelines exist in Finnish schools. Challenges were identified at all system levels of ecological theory. To ensure proper medication management, school staff need clear and consistent guidance developed in co-operation between different professions, and exploring ways to involve pharmacists in this task.
This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching.
We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age.
Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep.
Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
Clinical placements play a central part in the education of future emergency medical services (EMS) staff and their development of clinical skills and competence. A key aspect of students' integration of theory and praxis and development into an independent clinician is a supportive mentorship with the preceptor. However, students report barriers for learning within the EMS, while the preceptors' experiences of their role have received scant attention in research.
To describe preceptors' experiences of student supervision in the EMS during clinical placements.
A descriptive qualitative design was used. Twenty specialist nurses were recruited among EMS staff from all parts of Sweden.
Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed with latent qualitative content analysis.
EMS preceptors develop a competence in combining caring and learning adapted to individual student needs when facing students with varying needs in an ever-changing healthcare setting. A trustful relationship between student and preceptor is fundamental when coping with a dual responsibility for student and patient needs. However, several aspects in the EMS setting hinders the preceptors' ability to support the development of the students' independence. Surrounding support structures are important if the preceptors are to feel safe and secure in their role as assessor, teacher and ambulance nurse.
Preceptors need to develop a didactic flexibility through preceptor courses adapted to the complex premises found in the EMS. Ambulance services and universities should recognize the importance of preceptors´ colleagues, student continuity, university support and cooperation for improving quality and clarity in supervision during clinical placements.
Competent educators are needed to ensure that social and healthcare professionals are effective and highly competent. However, there is too little evidence-based knowledge of current and required enhancements of educators' competences in this field. The aim of this study was to describe social and healthcare educators' perceptions of their competence in education. The study had a qualitative design, based on interviews with educators and rooted in critical realism. Forty-eight participants were recruited from seven universities of applied sciences and two vocational colleges in Finland, with the assistance of contact persons nominated by the institutions. The inclusion criterion for participation was employment by an educational institution as a part-time or full-time, social and/or healthcare educator. Data were collected in the period February-April 2018. The participants were interviewed in 16 focus groups with two to five participants per group. The acquired data were subjected to inductive content analysis, which yielded 506 open codes, 48 sub-categories, nine categories and one main category. The educators' competence was defined as a multidimensional construct, including categories of educators' competences in practicing as an educator, subject, ethics, pedagogy, management and organisation, innovation and development, collaboration, handling cultural and linguistic diversity, and continuous professional development. Educators recognised the need for developing competence in innovation to meet rapid changes in a competitive and increasingly global sociopolitical environment. Enhancement of adaptability to rapid changes was recognised as a necessity. The findings have social value in identifying requirements to improve social and healthcare educators' competence by helping educational leadership to improve educational standards, construct a continuous education framework and create national and/or international curricula for teacher education degree programs to enhance the quality of education. We also suggest that educational leadership needs to establish, maintain and strengthen collaborative strategies to provide effective, adaptable support systems, involving educators and students, in their working practices.
Over the past decade, there has been a rapid increase in higher education institutions offering opportunities for interprofessional learning (IPL) to their students. The literature presents a number of factors that contribute to effective IPL, including having trained facilitators that help optimise the learning process. Many of these IPL facilitators are university teachers and the literature provides us with some insight into their views of IPL. However, little is known about university teachers' views about IPL and their role in supporting students in achieving outcomes linked to IPL during their own teaching; this paper explores these areas. University teachers, working with students in Norway and England who contribute to patients' care pathway were purposively invited to join focus groups. Data collected from the teachers' conversations during these focus groups were analysed to elicit the main themes. Findings show that university teachers have a wide range of views about IPL, its potential to enhance collaborative practice and care, and their role in helping students achieve outcomes linked to IPL. A key challenge appears to be whether IPL is "worth the struggle," which emphasises the need for strong leadership in order to align pedagogical approaches in education and practice that strive to achieve agreed outcomes.