Three types of human smoking behavior, identified by factor analysis of questionnaire responses, were found to exhibit a stable structure in a series of different populations and environments. Type I smoking behavior is closely related to a personally perceived need for tobacco products. Types II and III are related to psychosocial-sensorimotor rewards and the intensification of pleasure, respectively. The typology is easily detectable and remarkably constant in the following populations: staff, employees, and patients of a teaching hospital in London, England; urbanites and suburbanites of mixed ages in a part of metropolitan Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.; college students in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., elderly urbanites and suburbanites in the metropolitan areas of (a) Stockholm, Sweden and (b) G?teborg, Sweden; and the adult children of the Swedish groups (a) and (b).
The Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ) is a widely-used measure of adult attachment, but whether the results obtained by the RSQ fit the attachment construct has only been examined to a limited extent.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the RSQ and to test whether the results are consistent with the hypothesized model of attachment.
The study included two samples: 602 general practitioners and 611 cancer patients. The two samples were analyzed separately. Data quality was assessed by mean, median and missing values for each item, floor and ceiling effects, average inter-item correlations and Cronbach's a for each subscale. Test-retest was assessed by intra-class correlations among 76 general practitioners. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to establish evidence of the four proposed subscales. Due to an inadequate fit of the model, data was randomly split into two equally sized subsamples and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted for all 30 items in the first subsample comprised of 286 cancer patients and 285 general practitioners. The EFA yielded a three-factor structure which was validated through a confirmatory factor analyses in a second subsample comprised of 278 cancer patients and 289 general practitioners.
The data quality of the RSQ was generally good, except low internal consistency and low to moderate test-retest reliability. The four subscales of the RSQ were not confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis. An exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution for both general practitioners and patients, which accounted for 61.1% of the variance among general practitioners and 62.5% among patients. The new three-factor solution was verified in a confirmatory factor analyses.
The proposed four-factor model of the RSQ could not be confirmed in this study. Similar challenges have been found by other studies validating the RSQ. An alternative three-factor structure was found for the RSQ.
Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.
Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.
Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.
Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.
The strength of and relationship between the fundamental elements context, evidence and facilitation of the PARIHS framework are proposed to be key for successful implementation of evidence into healthcare practice. A better understanding of the presence and strength of contextual factors is assumed to enhance the opportunities of adequately developing an implementation strategy for a specific setting. A tool for assessing context-The Context Assessment Index (CAI)-was developed and published 2009. A Swedish version of the instrument was developed and evaluated among registered nurses. This work forms the focus of this paper.
The purpose of this study was to translate the CAI into Swedish, adapt the instrument for use in Swedish healthcare practice and assess its psychometric properties.
The instrument was translated and back-translated to English. The feasibility of items and response scales were evaluated through think aloud interviews with clinically active nurses. Psychometric properties were evaluated in a sample of registered nurses (n = 373) working in a variety of healthcare organisations in the Stockholm area. Item and factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were computed to evaluate internal structure and internal consistency.
Sixteen items were modified based on the think aloud interviews and to adapt the instrument for use in acute care. A ceiling effect was observed for many items and the originally identified 37 item five-factor model was not confirmed. Item analyses showed an overlap between factors and indicated a one-dimensional scale.
The Swedish version of the CAI has a wider application than the original instrument. This might have contributed to the differences in factor structure. Different opportunities for further development of the scale are discussed.
Further evaluation of the psychometric properties of the CAI is required.
Physical workload is a continuous problem, even in modern workplaces. The purpose of the survey was to determine the effect of support on employees' physical load factors at workplaces. Training, guidance and support were the main focus areas of the early support intervention, which aimed to enable supervisors to find weak signals of impaired ergonomics.The survey was carried out in the form of a controlled longitudinal study, and the material was gathered via a questionnaire in both 2008 and 2010 from two co-operative trade groups. The final sample was 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects, and the response rate was 45% in both groups. We applied factor analysis to reduce the number of items. The physical load factors' sum score consisted of six items. We used logistic regression in the statistical analysis.Encouragement to improve processes at the workplace increased the probability of positive change (i.e. decrease) in physical load factors. The same applied to working pace, if individuals could control it themselves. In contrast, workload and the support of supervisors had a reversed impact on workers' physical load factors. Focusing on promoting workers' ergonomics is still important in workplaces when aiming to decrease physical load factors.
According to Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing, the structure of self-care consists of self-care agency balanced by therapeutic self-care demand. Different conditioning factors constitute these two constructs. The aim of this study was to investigate through secondary analysis the structure of self-care in a group of elderly. Data were originally collected from a total of 125 randomly chosen elderly individuals (65+ years of age) in Sweden by means of a mailed questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to show that self-care agency was totally and significantly balanced against therapeutic self-care demand and explained by five conditioning factors.
Undergraduate nursing students must uphold patient safety as a professional and moral obligation across all clinical learning experiences. This expectation commences at entry into the nursing program. As part of a larger study exploring undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students' understanding of clinical safety, this paper specifically focuses on first year students' viewpoints about unsafe clinical learning situations.
Q-methodology was used. Sixty-eight first year nursing students participated in the ranking of 43 statements indicative of unsafe clinical situations and practices. Data was entered into a Q-program for factor analysis.
The results revealed a typology of four discrete viewpoints of unsafe clinical situations for first year students. These viewpoints included an overwhelming sense of inner discomfort, practicing contrary to conventions, lacking in professional integrity and disharmonizing relations. Overall, a consensus viewpoint described exonerating the clinical educator as not being solely responsible for clinical safety.
This information may assist students and educators to cooperatively and purposefully construct a clinical learning milieu conducive to safety.