OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength training is one of the most common therapy methods in physical therapy programs, and the usual goal of this treatment is to improve muscle strength. Little attention has been paid, however, to the effects of strength training on the other components of motor performance. This study examined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on the motor performance of the hand, including reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination in normal healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Before-after trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Sixteen healthy women volunteers aged 25 to 45 years participated. INTERVENTION: Subjects accomplished a 10-week muscle strength training program of the upper extremities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination were measured three times on consecutive days, and muscle strength and electromyographic values of the right upper extremity were recorded once before the training period. After the training period, the same measurements were made as before the training. RESULTS: The 10-week strength training decreased choice reaction time by 6% (p
Obesity- and virus-mediated insulin resistance (IR) are associated with adverse hepatic and metabolic outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study evaluates the tolerability and effects of a dietary and physical activity (PA) intervention in obese patients with insulin-resistant CHC.
Obese patients (body mass index, BMI =30 kg/m(2) ) with CHC were recruited prospectively. Non-diabetic patients with IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR, HOMA-IR >2.0) proceeded to a 24-week lifestyle intervention comprising pedometer monitored increase in PA (=10 000 steps/day) and an individualised dietary plan.
Ten non-cirrhotic and six cirrhotic patients [age 52 ± 8.5 years, BMI 35.9 (31.46-38.21)kg/m(2) ] were recruited, of whom all 16 (100%) completed the 24-week protocol. Increase in PA from 6853 (2440-9533) to 10 697 (7959-13566) steps/day (P = 0.001) and reduction in caloric intake from 2263 (1805.4-2697.0) to 1281 (1099.5-1856.3) kcal/day (equivalent to reduction of median 33% (25.3-49.8%), P
Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern.
To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process.
Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.
Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.
Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol.
A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.
Exercise capacity strongly predicts survival and aerobic interval training (AIT) increases peak oxygen uptake effectively in cardiac patients. Usual care in Norway provides exercise training at the hospitals following myocardial infarction (MI), but the effect and actual intensity of these rehabilitation programmes are unknown.
Randomized controlled trial.
Hospital cardiac rehabilitation.
One hundred and seven patients, recruited two to 12 weeks after MI, were randomized to usual care rehabilitation or treadmill AIT.
Usual care aerobic group exercise training or treadmill AIT as 4?×?4 minutes intervals at 85-95% of peak heart rate. Twice weekly exercise training for 12 weeks.
The primary outcome measure was peak oxygen uptake. Secondary outcome measures were endothelial function, blood markers of cardiovascular disease, quality of life, resting heart rate, and heart rate recovery.
Eighty-nine patients (74 men, 15 women, 57.4?±?9.5 years) completed the programme. Peak oxygen uptake increased more (P?=?0.002) after AIT (from 31.6?±?5.8 to 36.2?±?8.6?mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), P?
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P
BACKGROUND: Beneficial training outcomes have been reported in sedentary patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) after exercise training. However, data on training effects in previously trained patients, as well as comparisons of different exercise modes, are lacking. The aim of this study is to compare exercise training on a cycle ergometer (major muscle mass) and aerobic knee-extensor training (minor muscle mass) in previously trained patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four men and women (age, 63 +/- 10 years [mean +/- SD]) with stable, moderate CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 30% +/- 11%) who had completed their first exercise training period more than 1 year ago were allocated to either the exercise or control group. After stratification for sex, age, ejection fraction, and cardiac output response, the training group was further randomized to either cycle ergometer or knee-extensor training for 8 weeks. The control and training patients did not differ at baseline, and the measured variables did not change in the control group during the 8 weeks. Citrate synthase activity in skeletal muscle increased after cycle training (23%; P
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts.
Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 944, median age 19) were followed for six months. MSDs, including overuse and acute injuries, treated at the garrison clinic were identified and analysed. Associations between MSDs and risk factors were examined by multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models.
During the six-month follow-up of two successive cohorts there were 1629 MSDs and 2879 health clinic visits due to MSDs in 944 persons. The event-based incidence rate for MSD was 10.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.0-11.1) per 1000 person-days. Most MSDs were in the lower extremities (65%) followed by the back (18%). The strongest baseline factors associated with MSDs were poor result in the combined outcome of a 12-minute running test and back lift test (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.6), high waist circumference (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), high body mass index (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), poor result in a 12-minute running test (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2), earlier musculoskeletal symptoms (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) and poor school success (educational level and grades combined; HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). In addition, risk factors of long-term MSDs (>or=10 service days lost due to one or several MSDs) were analysed: poor result in a 12-minute running test, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, high waist circumference, high body mass index, not belonging to a sports club and poor result in the combined outcome of the 12-minute running test and standing long jump test were strongly associated with long-term MSDs.
The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable and favourable for future interventions. An appropriate intervention based on the present study would improve both aerobic and muscular fitness prior to conscript training. Attention to appropriate waist circumference and body mass index would strengthen the intervention. Effective results from well-planned randomised controlled studies are needed before initiating large-scale prevention programmes in a military environment.
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The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA) behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes.
Participants (N = 287) were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1) standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group)]; (2) standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2); and (3) PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3). PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up). Clinical (biomarkers) and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1.
ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234.
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Physical activity (PA) is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, most T2DM adults are insufficiently active.
To explore the effectiveness of two innovative/theoretically based behavioral-change strategies to increase PA and reduce hemoglobin A1c (A1c) in T2DM adults.
Participants (n = 287) were randomly assigned to a control group or an intervention group (i.e., print-based materials/pedometer group or print-based materials/pedometer plus telephone-counseling group). Changes in PA and A1c and other clinical measures were examined by Linear Mixed Model analyses over 18 months, along with moderating effects for gender and age.
PA and A1c levels did not significantly change in intervention groups. Step counts significantly increased in the print-based materials and pedometer plus telephone counseling group, for women.
No significant effects were found for PA or A1c levels for T2DM adults. The multi-component strategy including telephone counseling may have potential for women. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234.