A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial.
Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989.
Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0·20 (SE 0·02, SD 0·51) in the intervention group and 0·16 (0·01, 0·51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0·022 (95% CI 0·002-0·042, p=0·030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control).
Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
Academy of Finland, La Carita Foundation, Alzheimer Association, Alzheimer's Research and Prevention Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Social Insurance Institution, Ministry of Education and Culture, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Axa Research Fund, EVO funding for University Hospitals of Kuopio, Oulu, and Turku and for Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Oulu City Hospital, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and af Jochnick Foundation.
The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.
A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a shortened life expectancy and increased somatic comorbidity with, e.g., cardiovascular disorders. One major risk factor for these disorders is the metabolic syndrome, which has been reported to have a higher frequency in schizophrenic patients. Our objective was to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a population-based birth cohort. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 5613 members of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort who participated in the field study from 1997 to 1998. Subjects were divided into 4 diagnostic categories (DSM-III-R): (1) schizophrenia (N = 31), (2) other functional psychoses (N = 22), (3) nonpsychotic disorders (N = 105), and (4) no psychiatric hospital treatment (N = 5455, comparison group). Subjects were assessed for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in subjects with schizophrenia compared with the comparison group (19% vs. 6%, p = .010). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with other psychoses was 5%. After controlling for sex, the results of logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia was 3.7 (95% CI = 1.5 to 9.0). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia even at such a relatively young age underscores the need to select antipsychotic medications with no or little capability to induce metabolic side effects. Also, developing comprehensive efforts directed at controlling weight and diet and improving physical activity are needed.
We sought to describe responses to the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in healthy Canadian adults in order to facilitate interpretation of its results in patient populations. Seventy-seven healthy Canadians aged 45 to 85 years (65 ± 11 years, 40 females) completed this study. During a single visit, three 6MWTs were undertaken. The main outcome measure was 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Age, gender, height, and weight were recorded. In 61 (79%) participants, cardiorespiratory variables were collected during the third 6MWT using a calibrated portable gas analysis system. The 6MWD increased between the first and second test (615 ± 96 to 639 ± 98 m; p
Most pediatric exercise intervention studies that evaluate the effect on skeletal traits include volunteers and follow bone mass for less than 3 years. We present a population-based 6-year controlled exercise intervention study in children with bone structure and incident fractures as endpoints. Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys in the intervention group (3969 person-years) and 835 girls and 869 boys in the control group (8245 person-years), all aged 6 to 9 years at study start, during the 6-year study period. Children in the intervention group had 40 minutes daily school physical education (PE) and the control group 60 minutes per week. In a subcohort with 78 girls and 111 boys in the intervention group and 52 girls and 54 boys in the control group, bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2) ) and bone area (mm(2) ) were measured repeatedly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured bone mass and bone structure at follow-up. There were 21.7 low and moderate energy-related fractures per 1000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.3 fractures in the control group, leading to a rate ratio (RR) of 1.12 (0.85, 1.46). Girls in the intervention group, compared with girls in the control group, had 0.009?g/cm(2) (0.003, 0.015) larger gain annually in spine BMD, 0.07?g (0.014, 0.123) larger gain in femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), and 4.1?mm(2) (0.5, 7.8) larger gain in femoral neck area, and at follow-up 24.1?g (7.6, 40.6) higher tibial cortical BMC (g) and 23.9?mm(2) (5.27, 42.6) larger tibial cross-sectional area. Boys with daily PE had 0.006?g/cm(2) (0.002, 0.010) larger gain annually in spine BMD than control boys but at follow-up no higher pQCT values than boys in the control group. Daily PE for 6 years in at study start 6- to 9-year-olds improves bone mass and bone size in girls and bone mass in boys, without affecting the fracture risk.
Comment In: J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1322-424764102
The onset of action of antidepressants often takes 4 to 6 weeks. The antidepressant effect of wake therapy (sleep deprivation) comes within hours but carries a risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new chronotherapeutic intervention combining wake therapy with bright light therapy and sleep time stabilization could induce a rapid and sustained augmentation of response and remission in major depressive disorder.
75 adult patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder, recruited from psychiatric wards, psychiatric specialist practices, or general medical practices between September 2005 and August 2008, were randomly assigned to a 9-week chronotherapeutic intervention using wake therapy, bright light therapy, and sleep time stabilization (n = 37) or a 9-week intervention using daily exercise (n = 38). Patients were evaluated at a psychiatric research unit. The study period had a 1-week run-in phase in which all patients began treatment with duloxetine. This phase was followed by a 1-week intervention phase in which patients in the wake therapy group did 3 wake therapies in combination with daily morning light therapy and sleep time stabilization and patients in the exercise group began daily exercise. This phase was followed by a 7-week continuation phase with daily light therapy and sleep time stabilization or daily exercise. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was the primary outcome measure, and the assessors were blinded to patients' treatment allocation.
Both groups responded well to treatment. Patients in the wake therapy group did, however, have immediate and clinically significantly better response and remission compared to the exercise group. Thus, immediately after the intervention phase (week 2), response was obtained in 41.4% of wake therapy patients versus 12.8% of exercise patients (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.7-13.4; P = .003), and remission was obtained in 23.9% of wake therapy patients versus 5.4% of exercise patients (OR = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.7-17.8; P = .004). These superior response and remission rates obtained by the wake therapy patients were sustained for the whole study period. At week 9, response was obtained in 71.4% of wake therapy patients versus 47.3% of exercise patients (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3; P = .04), and remission was obtained in 45.6% of wake therapy patients and 23.1% of exercise patients (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3, P = .04). All treatment elements were well tolerated.
Patients treated with wake therapy in combination with bright light therapy and sleep time stabilization had an augmented and sustained antidepressant response and remission compared to patients treated with exercise, who also had a clinically relevant antidepressant response.
OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength training is one of the most common therapy methods in physical therapy programs, and the usual goal of this treatment is to improve muscle strength. Little attention has been paid, however, to the effects of strength training on the other components of motor performance. This study examined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on the motor performance of the hand, including reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination in normal healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Before-after trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Sixteen healthy women volunteers aged 25 to 45 years participated. INTERVENTION: Subjects accomplished a 10-week muscle strength training program of the upper extremities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination were measured three times on consecutive days, and muscle strength and electromyographic values of the right upper extremity were recorded once before the training period. After the training period, the same measurements were made as before the training. RESULTS: The 10-week strength training decreased choice reaction time by 6% (p