In the Antarctic, fishes of dominant suborder Notothenioidei have evolved in a unique thermal scenario. Phylogenetically related taxa of the suborder live in a wide range of latitudes, in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate oceans. Consequently, they offer a remarkable opportunity to study the physiological and biochemical characters gained and, conversely, lost during their evolutionary history. The evolutionary perspective has also been pursued by comparative studies of some features of the heme protein devoted to O(2) transport in fish living in the other polar region, the Arctic. The two polar regions differ by age and isolation. Fish living in each habitat have undergone regional constraints and fit into different evolutionary histories. The aim of this contribution is to survey the current knowledge of molecular structure, functional features, phylogeny and adaptations of the haemoglobins of fish thriving in the Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Arctic regions (with some excursions in the temperate latitudes), in search of insights into the convergent processes evolved in response to cooling. Current climate change may disturb adaptation, calling for strategies aimed at neutralising threats to biodiversity.
Host immune selection pressure influences the development of mutations that allow for HIV escape. Mutation patterns induced in HIV by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are HLA-allele specific. As ethnic groups have distinct and characteristic HLA allele frequencies, we can expect divergent viral evolution within ethnicities. Here, we have sequenced and analyzed the HIV pol gene from 1248 subtype B infected, treatment-na?ve individuals in Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed no separation between pol sequences from five self-identified ethnic groups, yet fixation index (F(ST)) values showed significant divergence between ethnicities. A total of 17 amino acid sites showed an ethnic-specific fixation pattern (0.015
Cites: Science. 2002 May 24;296(5572):1439-4312029127
Cites: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Mar 1;18(4):295-30711860677
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2004 Jan 22;20(2):289-9014734327
Cites: Nat Med. 2004 Mar;10(3):282-914770175
Cites: Science. 1986 Jun 20;232(4757):1548-533012778
Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.
A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs6983267, at 8q24.21 has recently been shown to associate with colorectal cancer (CRC). Three independent SNP association studies showed that rs6983267 contributes to CRC with odds ratios (OR) of 1.17 to 1.22. Here, we genotyped a population-based series of 1,042 patients with CRC and 1,012 healthy controls for rs6983267 and determined the contribution of SNP to CRC in Finland, using germ line DNA, as well as the respective cancer DNA in heterozygous patients. The comprehensive clinical data available from the 1,042 patients and their first-degree relatives enabled us to thoroughly examine the possible association of this variant with different clinical features. As expected, a significant association between the G allele of rs6983267 and CRC [OR, 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0018] was found, confirming the previous observations. A trend towards association of the G allele with microsatellite-stable cancer (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.02-1.85; P = 0.04) and family history of cancers other than CRC was seen (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1-1.43; P = 0.05). Four hundred and sixty-six GT heterozygotes identified in this study were analyzed for allelic imbalance at rs6983267 in the respective cancer DNA. One hundred and one tumors showed allelic imbalance (22%). The risk allele G was favored in 67 versus 34 tumors (P = 0.0007). This finding implicates that the underlying germ line genetic defect in 8q24.21 is a target in the somatic evolution of CRC.
The dating of recent events in the history of organisms needs divergence rates based on molecular fingerprint markers. Here, we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) of three distantly related alpine plant species co-occurring in the Spanish Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and the southwestern Alps/Massif Central to establish divergence rates. Within each of these species (Gentiana alpina, Kernera saxatilis and Silene rupestris), we found that the degree of AFLP divergence (D(N72)) between mountain phylogroups was significantly correlated with their time of divergence (as inferred from palaeoclimatic/palynological data), indicating constant AFLP divergence rates. As these rates did not differ significantly among species, a regression analysis based on the pooled data was utilized to generate a general AFLP rate. The application of this latter rate to AFLP data from other herbaceous plant species (Minuartia biflora: Schönswetter et al. 2006; Nigella degenii: Comes et al. 2008) resulted in a plausible timing of the recolonization of the Svalbard Islands and the separation of populations from the Alps and Scandinavia (Minuartia), and of island population separation in the Aegean Archipelago (Nigella). Furthermore, the AFLP mutation rate obtained in our study is of the same magnitude as AFLP mutation rates published previously. The temporal limits of our AFLP rate, which is based on intraspecific vicariance events at shallow (i.e. late glacial/Early Holocene) time scales, remains to be tested.
We studied two genome regions, VP1 and 3D, of 48 echovirus 30 (E30) isolates from Russia and the new independent states. In VP1, most isolates were similar to European strains reported earlier, and frequent change of circulating subgroups was noticed. We also observed, in 2003-2006, the reemergence of a group of E30 strains with a VP1 region very distant from most modern E30 strains and remotely similar to E30 isolates from the 1960s and the 1970s. A study of the 3D genome region detected multiple recombination events among the studied strains. Recombination presumably occurred every few years, and therefore, the study of a single VP1 genome region cannot accurately describe the phylogenetic history of the virus or predict pathogenetic properties of an isolate. In general, a comparison of the VP1 and 3D genome region phylogenies revealed, in some instances, virtually independent circulation of enterovirus genome fragments on a scale of years.
Cites: J Virol. 2003 Oct;77(19):10423-3112970427
Cites: J Gen Virol. 2003 May;84(Pt 5):1223-3512692288
The Aleuts are aboriginal inhabitants of the Aleutian archipelago, including Bering and Copper (Medny) Islands of the Commanders, and seem to be the survivors of the inhabitants of the southern belt of the Bering Land Bridge that connected Chukotka/Kamchatka and Alaska during the end of the Ice Age. Thirty mtDNA samples collected in the Commanders, as well as seven mtDNA samples from Sireniki Eskimos in Chukotka who belong to the Beringian-specific subhaplogroup D2, were studied through complete sequencing. This analysis has provided evidence that all 37 of these mtDNAs are closely related, since they share the founding haplotype for subhaplogroup D2. We also demonstrated that, unlike the Eskimos and Na-Dene, the Aleuts of the Commanders were founded by a single lineage of haplogroup D2, which had acquired the novel transversion mutation 8910A. The phylogeny of haplogroup D complete sequences showed that (1) the D2 root sequence type originated among the latest inhabitants of Beringia and (2) the Aleut 8910A sublineage of D2 is a part of larger radiation of rooted D2, which gave rise to D2a (Na-Dene), D2b (Aleut), and D2c (Eskimo) sublineages. The geographic specificity and remarkable intrinsic diversity of D2 lineages support the refugial hypothesis, which assumes that the founding population of Eskimo-Aleut originated in Beringan/southwestern Alaskan refugia during the early postglacial period, rather than having reached the shores of Alaska as the result of recent wave of migration from interior Siberia.
In this study, for the first time, two distinct genetic lineages of Puumala virus (PUUV) were found within a small sampling area and within a single host genetic lineage (Ural mtDNA) at Pallasjärvi, northern Finland. Lung tissue samples of 171 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) trapped in September 1998 were screened for the presence of PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and 25 were found to be positive. Partial sequences of the PUUV small (S), medium (M) and large (L) genome segments were recovered from these samples using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genetic groups of PUUV sequences that belonged to the Finnish and north Scandinavian lineages. This presented a unique opportunity to study inter-lineage reassortment in PUUV; indeed, 32 % of the studied bank voles appeared to carry reassortant virus genomes. Thus, the frequency of inter-lineage reassortment in PUUV was comparable to that of intra-lineage reassortment observed previously (Razzauti, M., Plyusnina, A., Henttonen, H. & Plyusnin, A. (2008). J Gen Virol 89, 1649-1660). Of six possible reassortant S/M/L combinations, only two were found at Pallasjärvi and, notably, in all reassortants, both S and L segments originated from the same genetic lineage, suggesting a non-random pattern for the reassortment. These findings are discussed in connection to PUUV evolution in Fennoscandia.
For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively. The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin. Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. Ancestry segments from different continents, identified with a probabilistic model, are used to construct and study "virtual genomes" of admixed individuals. We apply this approach to a cohort of 492 parent-offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations-Africa, Europe, and America-vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10-15 generations. The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations, and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations, as well as new candidate loci. The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease-related phenotypes and will allow new insight into the adaptive and demographic history of indigenous people.
Cites: Genetics. 2009 Feb;181(2):711-919087958
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;84(2):210-2319200528
Cites: Science. 2009 May 22;324(5930):1035-4419407144
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26;106(21):8611-619433783
Cites: PLoS Genet. 2009 Jun;5(6):e100051919543370
Cites: PLoS Genet. 2009 Aug;5(8):e100062319714205
Cites: Public Health Rep. 2009 Sep-Oct;124(5):702-1019753948