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Source
Nature. 2005 Oct 6;437(7060):794-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-6-2005
Source
Nature. 2005 Oct 6;437(7060):794-5
Date
Oct-6-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Biomedical Research - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence
Bioterrorism - prevention & control
Evolution, Molecular
Female
History, 20th Century
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - history - prevention & control - virology
Orthomyxoviridae - genetics - pathogenicity
Publishing
Time Factors
Virulence - genetics
Virulence Factors
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):26616421546
Comment On: Nature. 2005 Oct 6;437(7060):889-9316208372
Erratum In: Nature. 2005 Oct 13;437(7061):940
PubMed ID
16208326 View in PubMed
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Aboriginal experiences of aging and dementia in a context of sociocultural change: qualitative analysis of key informant group interviews with Aboriginal seniors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137393
Source
J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2011 Mar;26(1):103-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Shawnda Lanting
Margaret Crossley
Debra Morgan
Allison Cammer
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, Arts Building, 9 Campus Drive, S7N 5A5 Saskatoon, SK, Canada. shawnda.lanting@usask.ca
Source
J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2011 Mar;26(1):103-17
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - ethnology - psychology
Cultural Evolution
Dementia - ethnology - psychology
Family
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Interviews as Topic
Neuropsychological Tests
Qualitative Research
Saskatchewan
Abstract
Examining the role of culture and cultural perceptions of aging and dementia in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment remains an understudied area of clinical neuropsychology. This paper describes a qualitative study based on a series of key informant group interviews with an Aboriginal Grandmothers Group in the province of Saskatchewan. Thematic analysis was employed in an exploration of Aboriginal perceptions of normal aging and dementia and an investigation of issues related to the development of culturally appropriate assessment techniques. Three related themes were identified that highlighted Aboriginal experiences of aging, caregiving, and dementia within the healthcare system: (1) cognitive and behavioural changes were perceived as a normal expectation of the aging process and a circular conception of the lifespan was identified, with aging seen as going back "back to the baby stage", (2) a "big change in culture" was linked by Grandmothers to Aboriginal health, illness (including dementia), and changes in the normal aging process, and (3) the importance of culturally grounded healthcare both related to review of assessment tools, but also within the context of a more general discussion of experiences with the healthcare system. Themes of sociocultural changes leading to lifestyle changes and disruption of the family unit and community caregiving practices, and viewing memory loss and behavioural changes as a normal part of the aging process were consistent with previous work with ethnic minorities. This research points to the need to understand Aboriginal perceptions of aging and dementia in informing appropriate assessment and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia in Aboriginal seniors.
PubMed ID
21287400 View in PubMed
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Abstract profiles of structural stability point to universal tendencies, family-specific factors, and ancient connections between languages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120224
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Dan Dediu
Stephen C Levinson
Author Affiliation
Language and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Dan.Dediu@mpi.nl
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas
Asia
Australia
Bayes Theorem
Cultural Evolution - history
Europe
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Language - history
Linguistics - statistics & numerical data - trends
Phylogeny
Siberia
Abstract
Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the "stability profiles" of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One.2012;7(10). doi: 10.1371/annotation/ceff8775-a4e3-45cb-b6c9-dd62d9179d59
PubMed ID
23028843 View in PubMed
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Acculturation among circumpolar peoples: implications for health status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature239629
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1985;40:21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1985

[Activities of proteinases in invertebrate animals--potential objects of fish nutrition. Effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84976
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kuz'mina V V
Ushakova N V
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Cold Climate
Digestive Physiology
Digestive System - enzymology
Evolution
Fishes
Food chain
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Invertebrates - drug effects - enzymology - physiology
Metals, Heavy - toxicity
Peptide Hydrolases - metabolism
Phylogeny
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Differences in the degree of separate and combined effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals (zinc, copper) on the trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinase activities have been established in the whole body of some invertebrate animals - potential objects of fish nutrition: pond snail Lymnaeae stagnalis, orb snail Planorbis purpura, zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, oligochaetae Tubifex sp. and Lumbriculus sp. in total, chironomid larvae Chironimus sp. and Ch. riparus, as well as crustacean zooplankton. It has been shown that enzymes of the potential victim at a low temperature can compensate low activity of intestinal proteinases of fish bentho- and planktophages.
PubMed ID
18038636 View in PubMed
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Activity of disaccharidases in arctic populations: evolutionary aspects disaccharidases in arctic populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4724
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):473-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Andrew Kozlov
Galina Vershubsky
Svetlana Borinskaya
Maria Sokolova
Vladislav Nuvano
Author Affiliation
Institute of Developmental Physiology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia. aikozlov@narod.ru
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):473-6
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Age Factors
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Blood glucose
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors - enzymology - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Diet
Disaccharidases - deficiency - metabolism
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Evolution
Humans
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Disorders of dietary sugar assimilation occur more often among native people of the Arctic then in temperate climate inhabitants.It is hypothesized that the limited variety of natural exogenous sugars in the Arctic, and their low content in the traditional diets of native northerners in accordance with a "protein-lipid" type of metabolism weakened selection, favoring diversity of disaccharidase enzymes.
PubMed ID
16079601 View in PubMed
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The adaptation of polar fishes to climatic changes: Structure, function and phylogeny of haemoglobin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86911
Source
IUBMB Life. 2008 Jan;60(1):29-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Verde Cinzia
Giordano Daniela
di Prisco Guido
Author Affiliation
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, Naples, Italy.
Source
IUBMB Life. 2008 Jan;60(1):29-40
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Antifreeze Proteins - genetics
Arctic Regions
Cold Climate
Evolution, Molecular
Fishes - physiology
Hemoglobins - chemistry - genetics - physiology
Oxygen - blood
Phylogeny
Abstract
In the Antarctic, fishes of dominant suborder Notothenioidei have evolved in a unique thermal scenario. Phylogenetically related taxa of the suborder live in a wide range of latitudes, in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate oceans. Consequently, they offer a remarkable opportunity to study the physiological and biochemical characters gained and, conversely, lost during their evolutionary history. The evolutionary perspective has also been pursued by comparative studies of some features of the heme protein devoted to O(2) transport in fish living in the other polar region, the Arctic. The two polar regions differ by age and isolation. Fish living in each habitat have undergone regional constraints and fit into different evolutionary histories. The aim of this contribution is to survey the current knowledge of molecular structure, functional features, phylogeny and adaptations of the haemoglobins of fish thriving in the Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Arctic regions (with some excursions in the temperate latitudes), in search of insights into the convergent processes evolved in response to cooling. Current climate change may disturb adaptation, calling for strategies aimed at neutralising threats to biodiversity.
PubMed ID
18379990 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1748-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Bradshaw William E
Zani Peter A
Holzapfel Christina M
Author Affiliation
Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5289, USA. bradshaw@darkwing.uoregon.edu
Source
Evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1748-62
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Climate
Culicidae - genetics - physiology
Environment, Controlled
Evolution
Geography
North America
Photoperiod
Reproduction - physiology
Selection (Genetics)
Temperature
Abstract
Only model organisms live in a world of endless summer. Fitness at temperate latitudes reflects the ability of organisms in nature to exploit the favorable season, to mitigate the effects of the unfavorable season, and to make the timely switch from one life style to the other. Herein, we define fitness as Ry, the year-long cohort replacement rate across all four seasons, of the mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, reared in its natural microhabitat in processor-controlled environment rooms. First, we exposed cohorts of W. smithii, from southern, midlatitude, and northern populations (30-50 degrees N) to southern and northern thermal years during which we factored out evolved differences in photoperiodic response. We found clear evidence of evolved differences in heat and cold tolerance among populations. Relative cold tolerance of northern populations became apparent when populations were stressed to the brink of extinction; relative heat tolerance of southern populations became apparent when the adverse effects of heat could accumulate over several generations. Second, we exposed southern, midlatitude, and northern populations to natural, midlatitude day lengths in a thermally benign midlatitude thermal year. We found that evolved differences in photoperiodic response (1) prevented the timely entry of southern populations into diapause resulting in a 74% decline in fitness, and (2) forced northern populations to endure a warm-season diapause resulting in an 88% decline in fitness. We argue that reciprocal transplants across latitudes in nature always confound the effects of the thermal and photic environment on fitness. Yet, to our knowledge, no one has previously held the thermal year constant while varying the photic year. This distinction is crucial in evaluating the potential impact of climate change. Because global warming in the Northern Hemisphere is proceeding faster at northern than at southern latitudes and because this change represents an amelioration of the thermal environment and a concomitant increase in the duration of the growing season, we conclude that there should be more rapid evolution of photoperiodic response than of thermal tolerance as a consequence of global warming among northern, temperate ectotherms.
PubMed ID
15446427 View in PubMed
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Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286139
Source
Evolution. 2017 Mar;71(3):550-564
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Jon Ågren
Christopher G Oakley
Sverre Lundemo
Douglas W Schemske
Source
Evolution. 2017 Mar;71(3):550-564
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arabidopsis - genetics - physiology
Biological Evolution
Ecotype
Flowers - growth & development
Italy
Quantitative Trait Loci
Reproduction
Seasons
Selection, Genetic
Sweden
Abstract
To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality.
PubMed ID
27859214 View in PubMed
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Adaptive evolution of HIV at HLA epitopes is associated with ethnicity in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123483
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36933
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin
Stéphane Aris-Brosou
Isabelle Joanisse
Harriet Merks
Dominic Vallee
Kyna Caminiti
Paul Sandstrom
James Brooks
Author Affiliation
National HIV and Retrovirology Laboratories, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36933
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological - genetics
Adult
Alleles
Canada - ethnology
Epitopes - immunology
Evolution, Molecular
Female
HIV Infections - ethnology - immunology - virology
HIV-1 - genetics - pathogenicity
HLA Antigens - genetics - immunology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Selection, Genetic
Young Adult
Abstract
Host immune selection pressure influences the development of mutations that allow for HIV escape. Mutation patterns induced in HIV by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are HLA-allele specific. As ethnic groups have distinct and characteristic HLA allele frequencies, we can expect divergent viral evolution within ethnicities. Here, we have sequenced and analyzed the HIV pol gene from 1248 subtype B infected, treatment-na?ve individuals in Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed no separation between pol sequences from five self-identified ethnic groups, yet fixation index (F(ST)) values showed significant divergence between ethnicities. A total of 17 amino acid sites showed an ethnic-specific fixation pattern (0.015
Notes
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PubMed ID
22693560 View in PubMed
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549 records – page 1 of 55.