Low-dose drug therapy is promoted as a way to maximize benefit and minimize adverse drug effects when prescribing for older adults. This population-based study evaluates the age and sex-related use of two common therapies: thiazide diuretics, where evidence supports the use of low-dose therapy, and beta-blockers, where trials have not evaluated the minimum effective dose.
Using linked administrative databases we identified all of the 120,613 persons dispensed a thiazide diuretic therapy and 12,908 myocardial infarction survivors dispensed beta-blocker therapy in Canada's largest province. We used logistic regression models to study the association of age and sex with dispensing of low-dose thiazide diuretic and beta-blocker therapy at doses lower than evaluated in trials.
Of 120,613 older people dispensed a thiazide diuretic, 32,372 (26.8%) were dispensed a low dose. Patients 85 years of age or older, relative to the youngest group, were 30% more likely to be dispensed low-dose therapy (OR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.36; P
Age- and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio. A new standard in epidemiological surveys? Evaluation of three different estimates of iodine excretion based on casual urine samples and comparison to 24 h values.
The most accurate way to measure urinary iodine excretion in epidemiological surveys is still debated. We propose a new principle of estimating iodine excretion based on casual urine samples.
A total of 123 24 h urine samples and corresponding casual urine samples were collected from 31 subjects. Iodine excretion was expressed as 24 h iodine excretion and three different estimates: iodine concentration in the casual sample, iodine/gram creatinine in the casual sample, and the new principle-iodine/creatinine ratio in the casual sample, adjusted for expected creatinine excretion of the individual.
All three estimates based on casual urine samples correlated significantly to 24 h values with a r (Pearson) of 0.37 for iodine concentration, 0. 61 for iodine/creatinine ratio and 0.62 for the age- and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio. The median iodine excretion in the entire group was 143 microg/day in 24 h samples, 87 microg/l as iodine concentration, 77 microg/g creatinine as iodine/creatinine ratio and 126 microg/day as age- and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio.
Age- and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio is a more accurate and unbiased estimate of iodine excretion in epidemiological surveys of adults than the two most frequently used estimated: iodine concentration and iodine/gram creatinine, as these two estimates may introduce a bias depending on the composition of the investigated group. The adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio is superior to the other estimates, especially when individual estimates of 24 h iodine excretion is required or cohorts of selected groups are investigated.
This work was supported by grants from the Medical Research Foundation Region Greater Copenhagen, Faroe Islands and Greenland; the Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation; Musikforlaeggerne Agnes and Knut Morks Foundation.
In a previous investigation, statistical modelling was used to examine the relationship between large-bowel-cancer incidence and age, time period and birth cohort by anatomic sub-site and sex, using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) for the period 1950 to 1984. This analysis revealed differences in age-period-cohort patterns that suggested etiologic distinctions among sub-site groupings and between the sexes. To test the generalizability of the Connecticut findings, we have conducted a similar age-period-cohort analysis using data from the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR) for the period 1953 to 1987. Cancers of the large bowel were classified into 6 anatomic sub-sites: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. Data were fitted to log-linear age-period-cohort models. If we interpret differences in age-period-cohort patterns as reflecting etiologic distinctions, the Denmark analysis, in conjunction with the Connecticut findings, was consistent with there being etiologic distinctions between cancers of the colon vs. the rectum in both males and females, between cancers of the cecum and the ascending colon vs. the remainder of the colon in females and between males vs. females for cancers of the sigmoid colon and rectum. Cancers of the cecum and the ascending colon were the most similar between males and females. Due to the ambiguities of age-period-cohort modelling, these should be considered only tentative conclusions that can be tested by analytical epidemiologic studies.
Two groups of patients operated on for inguinal hernia, one outpatient group and one inpatient group, are compared with respect to subjective distress and immediate postoperative complications. The groups were chosen at random and matched for sex and age. A large number of those who received treatment as outpatients suffered marked distress during the first postoperative days. Some form of intermediary or light nursing should be tried out for the outpatients so that if necessary they can stay the night after operation at the hospital. The number of postoperative complications was equal in the two groups. With suitable patient selection and with a small number of reserve places in a light-care ward, the majority of inguinal hernia operations can be performed on outpatients, resulting in a considerable economic saving and shorter waiting time.
This study, based upon data from 40 non-demented Parkinson's disease cases and 101 community controls, and similar data provided by either the spouse (n = 110) or an adult child (n = 31) of each index subject, attempted to assess the usefulness of various demographic data provided by the surrogate respondents for the index subjects. The data were collected by personal interview using a structured questionnaire specifically developed for this study. Ninety-one percent of the index subjects and their surrogates provided information on the annual family income and 98% provided other demographic information. The analysis was done by three groups: the case-surrogates, the control-surrogates and the combined index subject-surrogates, and within each group by the two types of surrogates for the index subjects: the spouse vs adult child. The overall percent agreement between the index subjects and their surrogates varied from moderate for annual family income (54.1%), to good for educational level (61.6%) and to excellent for ethnic origin (82.6%), for age +/- 1 year (97.9%) and for marital status (100.0%). No significant differences in agreement were found for any of these demographic variables either between the case-surrogate group and the control-surrogate group, or between the spouse surrogates and the child surrogates. These findings suggest that spouses and adult children can provide valid information and are equally reliable informants concerning the demographic characteristics of index subjects in a case-control study of Parkinson's disease and, possibly, of other diseases.