Currently, researchers have to apply separately to individual biobanks if they want to carry out studies that use samples and data from multiple biobanks. This article analyzes the access governance arrangements of the original five biobank members of the Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union (BioSHaRE-EU) project in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom to identify similarities and differences in policies and procedures, and consider the potential for internal policy "harmonization." Our analysis found differences in the range of researchers and organizations eligible to access biobanks; application processes; requirements for Research Ethics Committee approval; and terms of Material Transfer Agreements relating to ownership and commercialization. However, the main elements of access are the same across biobanks; access will be granted to bona fide researchers conducting research in the public interest, and all biobanks will consider the scientific merit of the proposed use and it's compatibility with the biobank's objectives. These findings suggest potential areas for harmonization across biobanks. This could be achieved through a single centralized application to a number of biobanks or a system of mutual recognition that places a presumption in favor of access to one biobank if already approved by another member of the same consortium. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortia (BBMRI-ERIC), a European consortium of biobanks and bioresources with its own ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) common service, could provide a platform by developing guidelines for harmonized internal processes.
Migrants include a broad category of individuals moving from one place to another, either forced or voluntarily. Ethnicity and migration are interacting concepts which may act as determinants for migrants' health and access to health care. This access to health care may be measured by studying utilisation patterns or clinical outcomes like morbidity and mortality. Migrants' access to health care may be affected by several factors relating to formal and informal barriers. Informal barriers include economic and legal restrictions. Formal barriers include language and psychological and sociocultural factors.
ReprintIn: Dan Med Bull. 2007 Feb;54(1):48-917349225
This article summarizes the most important results of the Turku Conference on active strategies for an aging workforce, which took place in Turku/Finland in 1999. About 140 experts from all EU-member states participated. The article can be seen as a contribution to the current change in the debate on labor market policy concerning older workers in Germany.
The authors represented experience of contemporary activities of Occupational center in Rostov region, demonstrated efficiency of thorough medical examinations carried by mobile clinical and diagnostic laboratories, suggested 4-levels structure of occupational service organization.
ADOPT ("A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial") is a double-blind, controlled clinical trial that aims at assessing the efficacy of rosiglitazone, as compared to metformin or glibenclamide, in maintaining long-term glycaemic control in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. It randomized 4,360 patients who were followed for a median of 4.0 years. The cumulative incidence of monotherapy failure (defined as a confirmed level of fasting plasma glucose level of more than 180 mg/dl) averaged at 5 years 15% with rosiglitazone, 21% with metformin, and 34% with glibenclamide. This represents a risk reduction for rosiglitazone of 32% as compared to metformin and 63% as compared to glibenclamide (P
The implications for society of increasing life span to 120 years can only be guessed, but comparing the diversity of responses to aging in different countries may give insights into the possible effect. A European Union-funded study of the recipients of community care services in 11 European countries illustrates how such studies can help identify some of the issues. The study, made possible by the availability of a multidimensional standardized assessment for community care, illustrates how diversity of social and political history and culture results in widely different patterns of dependency in those cared for at home, different levels of formal care, and informal caregiver burden. There is wide variation in living arrangements, marital status, and dependency between countries. The average age of recipients of community care is approximately 82, regardless of the average age of the national population. In Italy, which has the oldest population in Europe, dependency in people supported at home in extended families is high, with little formal care and significant levels of informal caregiver burden. In contrast the Nordic countries have lower levels of dependency and greater proportions of people with no informal caregiver. In Germany, informal caregiver burden may be related to the regulatory mechanisms rather than dependency and levels of formal care. With a life expectancy of 120, it will be these 80-year-olds who will be caring for their parents. Although humankind is resourceful, it will require a unified approach to aging to overcome the challenging diversity in our societies.
The impact of alcohol regulation changes in Finland during 2004 on alcohol-positive sudden deaths was analysed, focusing on: (1) removal of traveller's allowance quotas on alcohol imports from other European Union (EU) countries, (2) lowering of Finnish alcohol excise duty rates and (3) Estonia joining the EU.
The impact of these changes was estimated using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analytical technique. Post-mortem forensic toxicology data were analysed over a 15-year period to account for seasonal and long-term variation. In all, the data comprised a weekly series of 33,782 alcohol-positive cases (at least 0.20 mg/g alcohol in blood) and a control series of 37,617 alcohol-negative cases.
Finland in 1990-2004.
The liberation of traveller's allowances had no material impact on alcohol-positive sudden deaths, but the impact of alcohol tax cuts in March 2004 was significant, resulting in an estimated eight additional alcohol-positive deaths per week, which is a 17% increase compared with the weekly average of 2003. The impact associated with Estonia joining the EU was not statistically significant. In the models applied to the control series of alcohol-negative deaths, none of the impact coefficients was statistically significant.
Alcohol tax cuts were associated with an increase in the number of sudden deaths involving alcohol. This parallels the reported increases in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related causes of death in 2004 in Finland.