Although age of first intercourse and the emotional aspects of that experience are often a target in assessment because they are thought to contribute to later sexual functioning, research to date on how sexual debut relates to adult sexual functioning has been limited and contradictory.
The goal of this study was to explore the association between age of first intercourse and adult sexual function in a sample of Euro-Canadian and Asian Canadian university students. In addition, culture-based comparisons of sexual complaints were made to clarify the role of culture in sexual response.
Euro-Canadian (N = 299) and Asian Canadian (N = 329) university students completed the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation.
Self-reported sexual problems and bidimensional acculturation.
Ethnic group comparisons revealed that Asians reported more sexual complaints including sexual avoidance, dissatisfaction and non-sensuality. Among the women, Asians reported higher scores on the Vaginismus and Anorgasmia subscales whereas the ethnic groups did not differ on the male-specific measures of sexual complaints. In the overall sample, older age of first intercourse was associated with more sexual problems as an adult, including more sexual infrequency, sexual avoidance, and non-sensuality. Among the Asian Canadians, less identification with Western culture was predictive of more sexual complaints overall, more sexual noncommunication, more sexual avoidance, and more non-sensuality. For Asian women, acculturation interacted with age of first intercourse to predict Vaginismus scores.
Overall, these data replicate prior research that found that a university sample of individuals of Asian descent have higher rates of sexual problems and that this effect can be explained by acculturation. Earlier sexual debut was associated with fewer sexual complaints in adulthood.
This paper uses a new standard model of adult mortality to compare the mortality patterns of Swedes, Japanese, and U.S. whites between 1950 and 1985. It examines changes in the age patterns of mortality and the cause-of-death structures within the populations, and the relationships between those two factors. As Japan has reached a level of mortality similar to that in Sweden, the age patterns of mortality in the two populations have become more similar despite distinct differences in causes of death. The United States has a cause-of-death structure similar to that of Sweden, but the age pattern of mortality is very different. High mortality in the middle age range in the United States results in approximately a one-year loss of life expectancy at age 45 in comparison with Sweden.
Ethnicity is associated with genetic, environmental, lifestyle and social constructs. Difficult to define using a single variable, but strongly predictive of health outcomes and useful for planning healthcare services, it is often lacking in administrative databases, necessitating the use of a surrogate measure. A potential surrogate for ethnicity is birthplace. Our aim was to measure the agreement between birthplace and ethnicity among six major ethic groups as recorded at the population-based mammography service for British Columbia, Canada (BC).
We used records from the most-recent visits of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia to cross-tabulate women's birthplaces and self-reported ethnicities, and separately considered results for the time periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2006. In general, we combined countries according to the system adopted by the United Nations, and defined ethnic groups that correspond to the nation groups. The analysis considered birthplaces and corresponding ethnicities for South Asia, East/Southeast Asia, North Europe, South Europe, East Europe, West Europe and all other nations combined. We used the kappa statistic to measure the concordance between self-reported ethnicity and birthplace.
Except for the 'Other' category, the most-common birthplace was East/Southeast Asia and the most-common ethnicity was East/Southeast Asian. The agreement between birthplace and self-reported ethnicity was poor overall, as evidenced by kappa scores of 0.22 in both 1990-1999 and 2000-2006. There was substantial agreement between ethnicity and birthplace for South Asians, excellent agreement for East/Southeast Asians, but poor agreement for Europeans.
Birthplace can be used as a surrogate for ethnicity amongst people with South Asian and East/Southeast Asian ethnicity in BC.
OBJECTIVE: Before 1991, Alaska Native children experienced one of the highest rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. H influenzae type b vaccine has led to a near-elimination of invasive H influenzae type b disease in the United States. We describe challenges encountered in controlling H influenzae type b disease in Alaska and update the current status of H influenzae disease and carriage in Alaska as lessons to other populations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from statewide H influenzae disease surveillance conducted during 1980-2004. Vaccine coverage data were based on audits from tribal facilities and the National Immunization Survey. H influenzae type b colonization data were based on 6 carriage studies. RESULTS: After universal infant vaccination in 1991, H influenzae type b disease among Alaska Native and non-Native children
OBJECTIVES: This study compares mortality patterns for the Alaska Native population and the U.S. white population for 1989-1998 and examines trends for the 20-year period 1979-1998. METHODS: The authors used death certificate data and Indian Health Service population estimates to calculate mortality rates for the Alaska Native population, age-adjusted to the U.S. 1940 standard million. Data on population and mortality for U.S. whites, aggregated by 10-year age groups and by gender, were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics, and U.S. white mortality rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. 1940 standard million. RESULTS: Overall, 1989-1998 Alaska Native mortality rates were 60% higher than those for the U.S. white population for the same period. There were significant disparities for eight of 10 leading causes of death, particularly unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide/legal intervention. Although declines in injury rates can be documented for the period 1979-1998, large disparities still exist. Alaska Native death rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes increased from 1979 to 1998. Given decreases in some cause-specific mortality rates in the U.S. white population, increased rates among Alaska Natives have resulted in new disparities. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that improvements in injury mortality rates are offset by marked increases in chronic disease deaths.
Michael Landen and Jim Roeber are with the Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe. Tim Naimi is with the Section of Internal Medicine, Boston Medical Center, MA. Larry Nielsen is with the National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems, Silver Spring, MD. Mack Sewell is with the Wyoming Department of Workforce Services, Cheyenne.
We describe the relative burden of alcohol-attributable death among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in the United States.
National Death Index records were linked with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. We calculated age-adjusted alcohol-attributable death rates from 1999 to 2009 for AI/AN and White persons by sex, age, geographic region, and leading causes; individuals of Hispanic origin were excluded.
AI/AN persons had a substantially higher rate of alcohol-attributable death than Whites from 2005 to 2009 in IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties (rate ratio = 3.3). The Northern Plains had the highest rate of AI/AN deaths (123.8/100,000), and the East had the lowest (48.9/100,000). For acute causes, the largest relative risks for AI/AN persons compared with Whites were for hypothermia (14.2) and alcohol poisoning (7.6). For chronic causes, the largest relative risks were for alcoholic psychosis (5.0) and alcoholic liver disease (4.9).
Proven strategies that reduce alcohol consumption and make the environment safer for excessive drinkers should be further implemented in AI/AN communities.
American Indian and Alaska Native men experience poorer sexual health than white men. Barriers related to their sex and racial identity may prevent them from seeking care; however, little is known about this population's use of sexual health services.
Sexual health service usage was examined among 923 American Indian and Alaska Native men and 5,322 white men aged 15-44 who participated in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression models explored differences in service use by race and examined correlates of use among American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Among men aged 15-19 and those aged 35-44, men with incomes greater than 133% of the federal poverty level, men with private insurance, those living in the Northeast and those living in rural areas, American Indians and Alaska Natives were more likely than whites to use STD or HIV services (odds ratios, 1.5-3.2). The odds of birth control service use did not differ by race. Differences in service use were found among American Indian and Alaska Native men: For example, those with a usual source of care had elevated odds of using sexual health services (1.9-3.4), while those reporting no recent testicular exam had reduced odds of using these services (0.3-0.4).
This study provides baseline data on American Indian and Alaska Native men's use of sexual health services. Research exploring these men's views on these services is needed to help develop programs that better serve them.
A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker, which at low-level elevations is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although CRP has been extensively investigated in North American and European settings, few studies have measured CRP among non-Western groups. The present study used dried whole blood spot samples to examine high-sensitivity CRP concentrations among the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia (85 females, 56 males; 18-58 years old). Our goals were: (1) to compare Yakut CRP concentrations with other populations; (2) to investigate sex differences; and (3) to explore anthropometric correlates of CRP. Results indicate that serum equivalent CRP concentrations are similar to those from industrializing nations, lower than US and European values, and greater than Japanese concentrations. Yakut men and women display similar CRP concentrations; however, CRP was significantly higher among men after adjustment for body fat, age, and smoking. Positive associations were documented between CRP and BMI, body fat, and central adiposity.
The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.