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The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism: a comparison across Asian Canadians and European Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123132
Source
J Couns Psychol. 2012 Oct;59(4):567-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Véronique Franche
Patrick Gaudreau
Dave Miranda
Author Affiliation
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Jacques Lussier, ON, Canada. vfran053@uottawa.ca
Source
J Couns Psychol. 2012 Oct;59(4):567-74
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Canada
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Educational Status
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Personal Satisfaction
Personality
Students - psychology
Abstract
The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
PubMed ID
22731112 View in PubMed
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Acculturation and sexual function in Asian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171478
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 2005 Dec;34(6):613-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Lori A Brotto
Heather M Chik
Andrew G Ryder
Boris B Gorzalka
Brooke N Seal
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics & Gyneacology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Lori.Brotto@vch.ca
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 2005 Dec;34(6):613-26
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adult
Asian Americans - psychology
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Questionnaires
Sexual Behavior - ethnology
Social Values - ethnology
Students - psychology
Abstract
Cultural effects on sexuality are pervasive and potentially of great clinical importance, but have not yet received sustained empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of acculturation on sexual permissiveness and sexual function, with a particular focus on arousal in Asian women living in Canada. We also compared questionnaire responses between Asian and Euro-Canadian groups in hopes of investigating whether acculturation captured unique information not predicted by ethnic group affiliation. Euro-Canadian (n = 173) and Asian (n = 176) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires in private. Euro-Canadian women had significantly more sexual knowledge and experiences, more liberal attitudes, and higher rates of desire, arousal, sexual receptivity, and sexual pleasure. Anxiety from anticipated sexual activity was significantly higher in Asian women, but the groups did not differ significantly on relationship satisfaction or problems with sexual function. Acculturation to Western culture, as well as maintained affiliation with traditional Asian heritage, were both significantly and independently related to sexual attitudes above and beyond length of residency in Canada, and beyond ethnic group comparisons. Overall, these data suggest that measurement of acculturation may capture information about an individual's unique acculturation pattern that is not evident when focusing solely on ethnic group comparisons or length of residency, and that such findings may be important in facilitating the assessment, classification, and treatment of sexual difficulties in Asian women.
PubMed ID
16362246 View in PubMed
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Acculturation and sexual function in Canadian East Asian men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166675
Source
J Sex Med. 2007 Jan;4(1):72-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Lori A Brotto
Jane S T Woo
Andrew G Ryder
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Vancouver, BC, Canada. lori.brotto@vch.ca
Source
J Sex Med. 2007 Jan;4(1):72-82
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adult
Asian Americans - psychology
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Cultural Characteristics
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Humans
Male
Men - psychology
Questionnaires
Sexual Behavior - ethnology
Social Values - ethnology
Students - psychology
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering acculturation when investigating the sexuality of East Asian women in North America. Moreover, bidimensional assessment of both heritage and mainstream cultural affiliations provides significantly more information about sexual attitudes than simple unidimensional measures, such as length of residency in the Western culture.
The goal of this study was to extend the findings in women to a sample of East Asian men.
Self-report measures of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and sexual satisfaction.
Euro-Canadian (N = 124) and East Asian (N = 137) male university students privately completed a battery of questionnaires in exchange for course credit. Results. Group comparisons revealed East Asian men to have significantly lower liberal sexual attitudes and experiences, and a significantly lower proportion had engaged in sexual intercourse compared with the Euro-Canadian sample. In addition, the East Asian men had significantly higher Impotence and Avoidance subscale scores on the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, a measure of sexual dysfunction. Focusing on East Asian men alone, mainstream acculturation, but not length of residency in Canada, was significantly related to sexual attitudes, experiences, and responses.
Overall, these data replicate the findings in women and suggest that specific acculturation effects over and above length of residency should be included in the cultural assessment of men's sexual health.
PubMed ID
17087799 View in PubMed
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Source
Int J Addict. 1982 Jul;17(5):749-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1982
Author
M. Penning
G E Barnes
Source
Int J Addict. 1982 Jul;17(5):749-91
Date
Jul-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Canada
Cannabis
Child Rearing
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Female
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology - psychology
Models, Psychological
Peer Group
Religion
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Sibling Relations
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
The adolescent marijuana literature is reviewed. Studies show that the prevalence of marijuana use is generally quite low in elementary schools. In junior and senior high samples, findings vary greatly from place to place. The prevalence of use increased dramatically during the 1970s although the use patterns may have peaked already in some areas. The use of marijuana increases with age, but some evidence suggests that a slight drop-off in use occurs near the end of high school. Female use seems to be increasing more than male use. Use seems to be somewhat more prevalent in middle- and upper-middle-class homes and in broken homes. Mixed support has been found for the hypothesis that marijuana users have parents that are more permissive. Parents of marijuana users are generally characterized as being less warm and supportive, and more inclined toward the use of drugs themselves. Peer and sibling use of marijuana seem to be particularly important predictors of adolescent marijuana use. Findings on personality characteristics of marijuana users are not extensive and are somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that users tend to be somewhat alienated, external in their locus of control, and possibly higher on anxiety. Users are also characterized by a higher value on independence vs achievement and more positive attitudes toward marijuana use. Behavioral correlates of marijuana use include greater use of alcohol and other drugs, and poorer school performance.
PubMed ID
6752049 View in PubMed
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Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115479
Source
Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013 Jun;39(6):763-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Kenichi Ito
Takahiko Masuda
Liman Man Wai Li
Author Affiliation
Institute on Asian Consumer Insight, Singapore. kito@ntu.edu.sg
Source
Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013 Jun;39(6):763-76
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Canada
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Culture
Emotions
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Facial Expression
Humans
Judgment
Abstract
Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.
PubMed ID
23504599 View in PubMed
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Age-Related Differences in Quality of Life in Swedish Women with Endometriosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283087
Source
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Jun;25(6):646-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Lena Lövkvist
Per Boström
Måns Edlund
Matts Olovsson
Source
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Jun;25(6):646-53
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Cost of Illness
Endometriosis - psychology
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Retrospective Studies
Sexual Behavior
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the impact of endometriosis on quality of life (QoL) in different age groups of Swedish women with endometriosis. Recruitment occurred through the Endometriosis Association (Sweden) (n?=?400) and five gynecology departments of five Swedish hospitals (n?=?400). All voluntary female members of the patient organization and patients attending specialist clinics due to endometriosis (n?=?800) were invited by sending them a questionnaire. An age- and gender-matched sample of the general Swedish population was used as a control group when analyzing SF-36 data.
A postal questionnaire (including SF-36) was distributed to 800 women. The questionnaire was evaluated by using descriptive statistics, and SF-36 was evaluated according to standard methods.
Of the 449 (56%) self-administered questionnaires returned, 431 (96%) contained evaluable answers. Women with endometriosis have significantly lower SF-36 scores than the general female Swedish population, and the score depends on the women's age. Younger women experience more symptoms and have a lower QoL score compared with women in the older age group.
Women with endometriosis have significantly lower QoL than the general female Swedish population and it depends on the women's age, where younger women express more symptoms and have a lower QoL compared with women in the older age group. Our results highlight that more healthcare resources should be focused on younger women with endometriosis.
PubMed ID
26788982 View in PubMed
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Alaska native suicide: lessons for elder suicide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3656
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):205-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1998
Author
P. Kettl
Author Affiliation
Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):205-11
Date
Jun-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Epidemiologic Studies
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicide - ethnology
Abstract
Suicide rates in Alaska Native elders are studied to further explore cultural factors in elderly suicide. Data for the 1960s and 1970s are reviewed, and new data on Alaska Native suicide rates are presented for the 10-year period of 1985 through 1994. In many areas throughout the world, suicide rates are the highest for the elderly. During the Alaska "oil boom," suicide rates more than tripled for the general population but decreased to zero for Alaska Native elders. Cultural teachings from the society's elders were more important during this time of culture upheaval. During the study period, the cultural changes dissipated, and suicide rates for Alaska Native elders, although lower than those of White Alaskans, increased. This provides further evidence that suicide rates for elders can be influenced by social factors--both to raise to lower rates.
PubMed ID
9677507 View in PubMed
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Assessment of anxiety sensitivity in young American Indians and Alaska Natives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5551
Source
Behav Res Ther. 2001 Apr;39(4):477-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
M J Zvolensky
D W McNeil
C A Porter
S H Stewart
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown 26506-6040, USA. zvolensky@aol.com
Source
Behav Res Ther. 2001 Apr;39(4):477-93
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska - ethnology
Anxiety - diagnosis - ethnology
Comparative Study
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Kansas
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - standards
Psychometrics
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Abstract
In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index [ASI; Behav. Res. Ther. 24 (1986) 1] was administered to 282 American Indian and Alaska Native college students in a preliminary effort to: (a) evaluate the factor structure and internal consistency of the ASI in a sample of Native Americans; (b) examine whether this group would report greater levels of anxiety sensitivity and gender and age-matched college students from the majority (Caucasian) culture lesser such levels; and (c) explore whether gender differences in anxiety sensitivity dimensions varied by cultural group (Native American vs. Caucasian). Consistent with existing research, results of this investigation indicated that, among Native peoples, the ASI and its subscales had high levels of internal consistency, and a factor structure consisting of three lower-order factors (i.e. Physical, Psychological, and Social Concerns) that all loaded on a single higher-order (global Anxiety Sensitivity) factor. We also found that these Native American college students reported significantly greater overall ASI scores as well as greater levels of Psychological and Social Concerns relative to counterparts from the majority (Caucasian) culture. There were no significant differences detected for ASI physical threat concerns. In regard to gender, we found significant differences between males and females in terms of total and Physical Threat ASI scores, with females reporting greater levels, and males lesser levels, of overall anxiety sensitivity and greater fear of physical sensations; no significant differences emerged between genders for the ASI Psychological and Social Concerns dimensions. These gender differences did not vary by cultural group, indicating they were evident among Caucasian and Native Americans alike. We discuss the results of this investigation in relation to the assessment of anxiety sensitivity in American Indians and Alaska Natives, and offer directions for future research with the ASI in Native peoples.
PubMed ID
11280345 View in PubMed
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Association between depressive symptoms and age, sex, loneliness and treatment among older people in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267237
Source
Aging Ment Health. 2015;19(6):560-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ingrid Djukanovic
Kimmo Sorjonen
Ulla Peterson
Source
Aging Ment Health. 2015;19(6):560-8
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Loneliness - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex among older people (65-80 years) and to investigate to what extent those who report depressive symptoms had visited a health care professional and/or used antidepressant medication.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Swedish sample randomized from the total population in the age group 65-80 years (n = 6659). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
The data showed that 9.8% (n = 653) reported depressive symptoms and 27.5% reported feelings of loneliness. More men than women reported depressive symptoms, and the largest proportion was found among men in the age group 75-80 years. An association between the odds to have a depressive disorder and loneliness was found which, however, decreased with increasing age. Of those with depressive symptoms a low proportion had visited a psychologist (2.9%) or a welfare officer (4.2%), and one in four reported that they use antidepressant medication. Of those who reported depressive symptoms, 29% considered that they had needed medical care during the last three months but had refrained from seeking, and the most common reason for that was negative experience from previous visits.
Contrary to findings in most of the studies, depressive symptoms were not more prevalent among women. The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and to offer adequate treatment in order to increase their well-being.
PubMed ID
25266255 View in PubMed
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The Association between Job Strain and Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Swedish WOLF Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275780
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:371905
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Eleonor I Fransson
Magdalena Stadin
Maria Nordin
Dan Malm
Anders Knutsson
Lars Alfredsson
Peter J M Westerholm
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:371905
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Atrial Fibrillation - etiology
Cohort Studies
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - complications
Sweden
Work - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF.
Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk.
In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account.
This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26557661 View in PubMed
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82 records – page 1 of 9.