Skip header and navigation

Refine By

1015 records – page 1 of 102.

2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
Less detail

99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: immune therapies of type 1 diabetes: new opportunities based on the hygiene hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144028
Source
Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 Apr;160(1):106-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
L. Chatenoud
S. You
H. Okada
C. Kuhn
B. Michaud
J-F Bach
Author Affiliation
Université Paris Descarte, Paris, France. lucienne.chatenoud@inserm.fr
Source
Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 Apr;160(1):106-12
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Autoantigens - immunology
Bacteria - immunology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - immunology - therapy
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Hygiene
Hypersensitivity - immunology
Immunosuppression - methods
Immunotherapy - methods
Infection - immunology - microbiology
Mice
Pancreatitis - immunology - microbiology
Toll-Like Receptors - agonists
Young Adult
Abstract
Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes is a prototypic organ-specific autoimmune disease resulting from the selective destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells within pancreatic islets of Langerhans by an immune-mediated inflammation involving autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes which infiltrate pancreatic islets. Current treatment is substitutive, i.e. chronic use of exogenous insulin which, in spite of significant advances, is still associated with major constraints (multiple daily injections, risks of hypoglycaemia) and lack of effectiveness over the long term in preventing severe degenerative complications. Finding a cure for autoimmune diabetes by establishing effective immune-based therapies is a real medical health challenge, as the disease incidence increases steadily in industrialized countries. As the disease affects mainly children and young adults, any candidate immune therapy must therefore be safe and avoid a sustained depression of immune responses with the attendant problems of recurrent infection and drug toxicity. Thus, inducing or restoring immune tolerance to target autoantigens, controlling the pathogenic response while preserving the host reactivity to exogenous/unrelated antigens, appears to be the ideal approach. Our objective is to review the major progress accomplished over the last 20 years towards that aim. In addition, we would like to present another interesting possibility to access new preventive strategies based on the 'hygiene hypothesis', which proposes a causal link between the increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, including diabetes, and the decrease of the infectious burden. The underlying rationale is to identify microbial-derived compounds mediating the protective activity of infections which could be developed therapeutically.
Notes
Cites: J Immunol. 2000 Jun 1;164(11):5683-810820244
Cites: Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 Apr;160(1):1-920415844
Cites: Lancet. 2000 Aug 12;356(9229):545-910950231
Cites: Diabetologia. 2000 Aug;43(8):1000-410990077
Cites: J Immunol. 2000 Dec 1;165(11):6148-5511086048
Cites: Annu Rev Immunol. 2001;19:131-6111244033
Cites: J Immunol. 2001 Jul 15;167(2):1081-911441119
Cites: Lancet. 2001 Nov 24;358(9295):1749-5311734230
Cites: Nature. 2002 Apr 11;416(6881):603-711948342
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 16;99(8):5539-4411943868
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 May 30;346(22):1685-9112037147
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 May 30;346(22):1740-212037155
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 19;347(12):911-2012239261
Cites: Vaccine. 2003 Feb 14;21(9-10):836-4212547591
Cites: Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Mar;3(3):417-2512639819
Cites: Science. 1984 Mar 30;223(4643):1362-76367043
Cites: Lancet. 1986 Jul 19;2(8499):119-242873396
Cites: Diabetes. 1986 Aug;35(8):855-603525284
Cites: J Exp Med. 1989 May 1;169(5):1669-802523954
Cites: BMJ. 1989 Nov 18;299(6710):1259-602513902
Cites: J Autoimmun. 1989 Dec;2(6):759-762533502
Cites: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Apr;40(4):1004-61525928
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jan 4;91(1):123-78278351
Cites: Endocr Rev. 1994 Aug;15(4):516-427988484
Cites: Diabetes Metab. 1996 Oct;22(5):341-88896996
Cites: J Exp Med. 1996 Nov 1;184(5):2049-538920894
Cites: J Immunol. 1997 Mar 15;158(6):2947-549058834
Cites: Immunology. 1962 May;5:378-8813887798
Cites: Nat Med. 2005 Feb;11(2):138-4515654326
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 23;352(25):2598-60815972866
Cites: J Exp Med. 2005 Oct 17;202(8):1131-916230478
Cites: J Exp Med. 2005 Nov 7;202(9):1171-716260486
Cites: Diabetes. 2006 Jan;55(1):179-8516380491
Cites: J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Mar;172(1-2):94-10316360885
Cites: Immunol Rev. 2006 Aug;212:185-20216903915
Cites: J Med Chem. 2006 Oct 5;49(20):6000-1417004714
Cites: Immunobiology. 2006;211(10):767-7717113914
Cites: Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 May;7(5):353-6417457343
Cites: Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Oct;8 Suppl 6:6-1417727380
Cites: J Clin Invest. 2007 Dec;117(12):3857-6718060033
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 14;358(7):676-8818272891
Cites: J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1;180(5):2863-7518292508
Cites: Lancet. 2008 May 24;371(9626):1777-8218502302
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 30;359(18):1909-2018843118
Cites: Lancet. 2008 Nov 15;372(9651):1746-5518814906
Cites: Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009 Apr;5(4):219-2619352320
Cites: Lancet. 2009 Jun 13;373(9680):2027-3319481249
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov;32(11):2036-4019690081
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 26;361(22):2143-5219940299
Cites: Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jun;267(11):3370-710824125
PubMed ID
20415859 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6586
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2006
Author
Tero Härkönen
Rune Dietz
Peter Reijnders
Jonas Teilmann
Karin Harding
Ailsa Hall
Sophie Brasseur
Ursula Siebert
Simon J Goodman
Paul D Jepson
Thomas Dau Rasmussen
Paul Thompson
Author Affiliation
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden. tero.harkonen@swipnet.se
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Date
Jan-30-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Carnivora
Comparative Study
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Disease Vectors
Distemper - epidemiology - mortality - pathology
Distemper Virus, Phocine
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Male
Morbillivirus - classification - pathogenicity
Phoca - virology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread to adjacent colonies in a stepwise fashion. However, this pattern was not maintained throughout the epidemics and new centres of infection appeared far from infected populations on some occasions: in 1988 early positive cases were observed in the Irish Sea, and in 2002 the epidemic appeared in the Dutch Wadden Sea, 6 wk after the initiation of the outbreak at Anholt Island. Since the harbour seal is a rather sedentary species, such 'jumps' in the spread among colonies suggest that another vector species could have been involved. We discussed the role of sympatric species as disease vectors, and suggested that grey seal populations could act as reservoirs for PDV if infection rates in sympatric species are lower than in harbour seals. Alternatively, grey seals could act as subclinical infected carriers of the virus between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Mixed colonies of grey and harbour seal colonies are found at all locations where the jumps occurred. It seems likely that grey seals, which show long-distance movements, contributed to the spread among regions. The harbour seal populations along the Norwegian coast and in the Baltic escaped both epidemics, which could be due either to genetic differences among harbour seal populations or to immunity. Catastrophic events such as repeated epidemics should be accounted for in future models and management strategies of wildlife populations.
PubMed ID
16532603 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Nov 1;131(21):2122-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2011
Author
Jørgen G Bramness
Siren Haugland
Author Affiliation
Senter for rus og avhengighetsforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norway. j.g.bramness@medisin.uio.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Nov 1;131(21):2122-5
Date
Nov-1-2011
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
4-Butyrolactone - metabolism - poisoning
Citric Acid Cycle
Drug Overdose - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Sodium Oxybate - poisoning
Solvents - poisoning
Street Drugs - poisoning
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome - diagnosis
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is naturally present in the human body, but may also be used as an intoxicating drug. Information from several sources has suggested its increased availability and use in Norway. There have also been reports of an increasing use of the chemical precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).There is currently a need for knowledge on symptoms, addictiveness and overdoses, as well as targeted preventive measures.
The article is based on a discretionary selection of articles resulting from a literature search in PubMed, as well as reports from Norwegian and European authorities and research institutions.
An intake of small amounts of GHB produces an intoxicating effect, whereas higher doses can result in poisoning. Deaths have been reported. The effect may be variable, due to a steep dose-response curve and interaction with alcohol and other intoxicants. Treatment of poisoning is symptomatic and supportive. Treatment of abstinence is also supportive, while delirium may be treated as delirium tremens.
Preventive measures should be tailored specifically to potential user-groups.
PubMed ID
22048208 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Accidents and accident mortality in Denmark--a comparison with Scandinavia and Europe]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11630
Source
Nord Med. 1994;109(10):265-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
T B Hansen
N D Röck
A. Poulstrup
S. Sabroe
J. Steensberg
B. Netterstrøm
Author Affiliation
Ortopaedkirurgisk afd 0 og Ulykkes Analyse Gruppen, Odense Universitets Hospital.
Source
Nord Med. 1994;109(10):265-8
Date
1994
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, occupational - mortality
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Poisoning - mortality
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
As the development in mean age of the population and life expectancy has been less favourable in Denmark than in the rest of Western Europe, the Ministry of Health decided to investigate statistics for the period, 1972-1990, for the main areas where Danish life expectancy was poorer. A sharp increase in the incidence of accidental poisoning with medical drugs and alcohol during the period was found to be a factor contributing to the poorer Danish statistics during the period. In the subcategory, death after a fall, there was an increase in incidence among the elderly, but the loss of life-years remained constant. The subcategory, fatal road accidents, manifested a marked reduction in incidence, despite the increase in traffic density during the period, and there was a reduction in the loss of life-years. Thus, in the category, accidental deaths, the increase in the incidence of accidental poisonings would appear to be the only factor contributing to the poorer development in mean age and life expectancy in Denmark.
PubMed ID
7937021 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A comparative study of the evolution of atherosclerosis in men over a 25-year period in 11 European and Asiatic cities]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54287
Source
Arkh Patol. 1998 Nov-Dec;60(6):3-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A M Vikhert
V S Zhdanov
N H Sternby
J. Dusková
I E Galakhov
Author Affiliation
A. L. Myasnikov Institute of Clinical Cardiology, Russian Cardiologic Scientific Centre, Moscow.
Source
Arkh Patol. 1998 Nov-Dec;60(6):3-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aorta - pathology
Arteriosclerosis - ethnology - pathology
Asia, Central - epidemiology
Autopsy - statistics & numerical data
Comparative Study
Continental Population Groups
Coronary Vessels - pathology
Disease Progression
English Abstract
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Oceanic Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Repeated epidemiologic study of atherosclerosis in males on the basis of autopsy material with 25-year interval (1963-66 and 1985-89) has been performed in 7 European cities (Malmö, Praha, Riga, Tallinn, Tartu, Kharkov, Yalta) and 4 Asia cities (Ashkhabad, Bishkek, Irkutsk, Yakutsk). Accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the 2nd study has been revealed in males in the majority of cities except Malmö and Praha. No significant differences in atherosclerosis of aorta and coronary arteries were found in these two cities. An increase of the calcinosis surface in the coronary arteries combined with a higher incidence of coronary stenosis was typical for the 2nd study. Atherosclerosis was less pronounced in the indigenous population of Ashkhabad, Bishkek and Yakutsk in both studied than in non-indigenous populations. There was a positive correlation in males between lethality of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis. Thus, the course of atherosclerosis can change within the life of one generation.
PubMed ID
9949896 View in PubMed
Less detail

Addressing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in penitentiary hospitals and in the general population of the former Soviet Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69465
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
F. Portaels
L. Rigouts
I. Bastian
Author Affiliation
Mycobacteriology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. portaels@itg.be
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Hospitals, Special
Humans
Incidence
Male
Prisons - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
High rates of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), have been reported from the former Soviet Union. Our laboratory has supported operational studies in jails in Baku, Azerbaijan, and Mariinsk, Siberia. Combining the results from these two penal systems, the rates of MDR-TB among 'newly enrolled' and 'non-responding' cases were 24.6% and 92.1%, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies strongly suggest transmission of MDR-TB between prisoners. In Mariinsk, the high rates of MDR-TB have been associated with failure rates of 23%-50% among smear-positive cases receiving fully-supervised standard short-course treatment. There are no coherent guidelines for TB control programmes confronted by high pre-existing levels of MDR-TB but who have only limited laboratory, clinical, pharmaceutical and financial resources. A 'DOTS plus' strategy has been advocated in which an established TB control programme is complemented by facilities to treat MDR-TB patients. However, the exact format of these programmes remains unresolved. Further research is required to describe the natural history of MDR-TB infection, to determine the failure rate of (and the additional resistance induced by) standard short-course treatment when MDR-TB is prevalent, to decide whether standardised or individualised second-line regimens can be employed, and to define the laboratory facilities required by a 'DOTS plus' programme.
PubMed ID
10423220 View in PubMed
Less detail

ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161796
Source
J Atten Disord. 2008 Jul;12(1):54-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Vladislav Ruchkin
Boris Lorberg
Roman Koposov
Mary Schwab-Stone
Denis G Sukhodolsky
Author Affiliation
Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-7900, USA. vladislav.ruchkin@yale.edu
Source
J Atten Disord. 2008 Jul;12(1):54-63
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Comorbidity
Europe - epidemiology
Faculty
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Observer Variation
Residence Characteristics
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia.
The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports.
Prevalence of individual ADHD symptoms ranges between 3.3% and 35%. Only 8.9% of boys and 3.6% of girls have positive ratings on six items in either inattention or hyperactivity subtype. These adolescents fare significantly worse regarding externalizing but not internalizing problems. Compared to girls with ADHD, boys with ADHD report higher levels of violent and nonviolent delinquency and are described by teachers as having more conduct problems. Possible ADHD status is associated with depressive symptoms in boys but not in girls.
The estimates of ADHD prevalence rates obtained in this study are similar to those of other countries, suggesting the need for identification and treatment of the disorder. Evaluation of associated disruptive behavior disorders and depression, particularly in boys, is warranted.
PubMed ID
17712166 View in PubMed
Less detail

1015 records – page 1 of 102.