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193 records – page 1 of 20.

Abortion, 1973: some recent world events in relation to pregnancy termination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66364
Source
Trans Aust Med Congr. 1974 Jun 1;1(5):27-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-1974
Source
Trans Aust Med Congr. 1974 Jun 1;1(5):27-30
Date
Jun-1-1974
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Americas
Developed Countries
Europe
Europe, Eastern
Family Planning Services
France
Germany, East
Germany, West
Great Britain
Italy
Netherlands
North America
Norway
Scandinavia
Sweden
United States
Abstract
This selective report notes recent events relating to pregnancy termination in the U.S., France, England, Italy, East and West Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Due to the Supreme Court decision in January 1973, abortion is now legal in the U.S. Although abortions is illegal in France, an estimated 400,000-1,000,000 clandestine abortions occur each year. Although abortions are legal in Britain, the ease with which they can be obtained varies regionally. As of March 1973, contraceptives are part of Britain's National Health Service. In Italy, a bill to legalize abortion has been introduced in Parliament, though there is little likelihood of its passing. In East Germany, abortion can be granted for medical or social reasons, while in West Germany, the governmental policies are more conservative, resulting in an abundance of illegal abortions performed by physicians. There is a trend toward easier abortion laws in Norway and Sweden. Little is happening in the Netherlands as far as liberalizing the abortion laws. Rather liberal grounds for pregnancy termination exist in China (though emphasis is on contraception), India, Russia, and Eastern Europe (with the exception of Romania). Abortion is frowned upon in Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East resulting in a large number of illegal abortions. It is concluded that there is liberalized abortion in communist bloc countries, there is trend toward liberalizing abortion in a large group of western countries, and tradition and religion are responsible for conservative abortion laws in a third group of countries.
PubMed ID
12333737 View in PubMed
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Abortion law reform and repeal: legislative and judicial developments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature255946
Source
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1971 Dec;14(4):1165-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1971

Access and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84779
Source
Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1244-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Aceijas Carmen
Hickman Matthew
Donoghoe Martin C
Burrows Dave
Stuikyte Raminta
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (CRDHB), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Department of Public Health and Policy, London, UK.
Source
Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1244-50
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia, Central - epidemiology
Demography
Europe, Eastern - epidemiology
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control
Health Services Accessibility - standards - statistics & numerical data
Hepatitis C - prevention & control
Humans
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs - economics - organization & administration - supply & distribution
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate access, activity and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. METHODS: Two data sets ('regional' and 'high-coverage sites') were used to estimate NSP provision (availability/number of sites), NSP utilization (syringes distributed/year), needle and syringe distribution (needles/syringes distributed/IDU/year), IDU reached (number/percentage of IDU contacted/year), regular reach (five or more contacts/month) and syringe coverage (percentage of injections/IDU/year administrable with new injecting equipment). RESULTS: Regional data set: results from 213 sites in 25 countries suggested that Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Ukraine had > 10 NSP during 2001/2. Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine had >or= 10,000 IDU in contact with NSP. Ten countries reached >or= 10% of the estimated IDU population. The 25 countries distributed approximately 17 million syringes/needles. Eight countries distributed > 0.5 million syringes/year. Syringe coverage (assuming 400 injections/IDU/year) was 15% in Macedonia. Overall syringe coverage was 1.2% and when assuming 700 injections/IDU/year it decreased to 0.7%. Syringe coverage for the IDU population in contact with NSP was 60% in Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova and Tajikistan. Overall syringe coverage for the population in contact with NSP was 9.8%. High-coverage data set: Soligorsk, Pskov and Sumy's NSP reached 92.3%, 92.2% and 73.3% of their estimated IDU population, respectively (regular reach: 0.2%, 1.8% and 22.7%). The distribution levels were 47.2, 51.7 and 94.2 syringes/IDU/year, respectively. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests suboptimal levels of NSP implementation, programme activity and coverage. This paper provides a baseline for development of indicators that could be used to monitor NSP. Strategies to increase coverage that may go beyond NSP are urgently required, as is research into understanding how NSP can contribute to better syringe coverage among IDU.
Notes
Comment In: Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1179-8017624968
PubMed ID
17565564 View in PubMed
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[Active detection, long-term observation and treatment of patients with arterial hypertension in one of the administrative regions of Moscow (a cooperative program with the COMECON countries)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature231532
Source
Przegl Lek. 1989;46(2):280-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989

AIDS--dramatic surge in ex-Soviet Union, no respite worldwide, new data show.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195656
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(1):78
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
R. Dobson
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(1):78
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe, Eastern - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Russia - epidemiology
Notes
Comment In: Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(3):26911285679
PubMed ID
11217673 View in PubMed
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[AIDS in Russia. It is still possible to stop the epidemic. Interview with Dr. A.P. Koslov]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7803
Source
SidAlerte. 1996 Jun-Jul;(54-55):9-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Bertrand
Source
SidAlerte. 1996 Jun-Jul;(54-55):9-10
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Developed Countries
Disease
Economics
English Abstract
Europe
Europe, Eastern
HIV Infections
International Cooperation
Research
Russia
Technology
Vaccines
Virus Diseases
Abstract
According to A.P. Koslov, president of the Fourth International Conference on AIDS, Cancer, and Associated Diseases held in Russia in 1996, the conference represents the first high level discussion of AIDS risk management in Russia. Russia has a strong potential for development of a vaccine, having been a key player in the smallpox eradication program in the late 1950s. Conditions are difficult at present, but it is possible that Russia will be able to develop a practical vaccine for distribution in the Third World. Efforts to develop an HIV vaccine underway in different countries have been examined, and a list has been compiled of Russian institutions able to participate in HIV vaccine development. International assistance for vaccine development in Russia would help both the medical establishment in Russia, which has suffered because of the economic and social crisis, and the international community. A meeting is planned for December 1996 in St. Petersburg to organize an AIDS control organization for all of Russia. Mobilization of support for AIDS prevention activities is necessary but very difficult. If nothing is done, the epidemic in Ukraine will soon spread to Russia. But Russia and China are among the few countries where an HIV epidemic could still be prevented or stopped. The association in St. Petersburg cooperates with other former Soviet republics in AIDS control activities, although attendance at international meetings and conferences is frequently curtailed for financial reasons.
PubMed ID
12179251 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and health: what is good for the French may not be for the Russians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201592
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998 Dec;52(12):766-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
W. Zatonski
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998 Dec;52(12):766-7
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - mortality - trends
Cohort Studies
Europe, Eastern - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - mortality
Notes
Comment On: J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998 Dec;52(12):772-410396517
PubMed ID
10396514 View in PubMed
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ALOX5AP gene and the PDE4D gene in a central European population of stroke patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176042
Source
Stroke. 2005 Apr;36(4):731-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Elin Lõhmussaar
Andreas Gschwendtner
Jakob C Mueller
Tõnis Org
Erich Wichmann
Gerhard Hamann
Thomas Meitinger
Martin Dichgans
Author Affiliation
Institutes of Human Genetics, GSF-National Research Institute for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
Source
Stroke. 2005 Apr;36(4):731-6
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases - genetics
5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins
Aged
Alleles
Carrier Proteins - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4
Edetic Acid - chemistry
Europe, Eastern
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic markers
Genotype
Haplotypes
Humans
Iceland
Ischemia
Linkage Disequilibrium
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Microsatellite Repeats
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Regression Analysis
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Stroke - genetics
Abstract
Recent evidence has implicated the genes for 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as susceptibility genes for stroke in the Icelandic population. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of these genes in a central European population of stroke patients.
A total of 639 consecutive stroke patients and 736 unrelated population-based controls that had been matched for age and sex were examined using a case-control design. Twenty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering ALOX5AP were genotyped. For PDE4D, microsatellite AC008818-1 and 12 SNPs, which tag all common haplotypes in previously identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, were analyzed.
A nominally significant association with stroke was observed with several SNPs from ALOX5AP, including SNP SG13S114, which had been part of the Icelandic at-risk haplotype. Associations were stronger in males than in females, with SG13S114 (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.55; P=0.017) and SG13S100 (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54; P=0.024) showing the strongest associations. No significant associations were detected with single markers and haplotypes in PDE4D. The frequencies of single-marker alleles and haplotypes differed largely from those in the Icelandic population.
The present study suggests that sequence variants in the ALOX5AP gene are significantly associated with stroke, particularly in males. Variants in the PDE4D gene are not a major risk factor for stroke in individuals from central Europe. Population differences in allele and haplotype frequencies as well as LD structure may contribute to the observed differences between populations.
PubMed ID
15731479 View in PubMed
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Anthropology, life histories, and the aged: the Toronto Baycrest Centre.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature242523
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1983-1984;18(4):255-75
Publication Type
Article
Author
C S Holzberg
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1983-1984;18(4):255-75
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anthropology, Cultural
Autobiography as Topic
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Europe, Eastern - ethnology
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Jews - history
Nursing Homes
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
This article describes and analyzes the accomplishments of a group of aged Jews residing at the Toronto Baycrest Centre, a multilevel geriatric facility. A project that began as an informally planned program to keep the participants socially engaged and active led to the publication of their memoirs , From Our Lives [5], with financial support from the Canadian government. The value of the memoir activity for the group and for the community is outlined. The article concludes with a general discussion of the importance of replicating such activities not only with elderly Jews but also among other groups of elderly persons.
PubMed ID
6373623 View in PubMed
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Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in Central and Eastern European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49190
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(1):17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Rafal L Górny
Jacek Dutkiewicz
Author Affiliation
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 13 Koscielna St., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(1):17-23
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - adverse effects
Air Microbiology - standards
Air pollution, indoor
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Europe, Eastern
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Abstract
Studies of indoor bioaerosols conducted in Central and Eastern European countries, as a result of the scarcity of funding, mostly do not attain the level presented by similar studies in Northern America and Western Europe. For socio-economic reasons, most of the intense studies on indoor bioaerosols in Central and Eastern European countries were carried out in industrial facilities and have contributed significantly to occupational health science. In contrast, until recently, insufficient of studies have been conducted on bioaerosols of residential and communal premises (dwellings, offices, schools, etc.) and no network for monitoring the microbiological quality of air in such premises exists. In Poland, in the mid-1990s complex bioaerosol investigations were carried out by the Bioaerosol Group at the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health in Sosnowiec. The concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi in dwellings without mold problems were between 88-4297 cfu/m(3) and 0-1997 cfu/m(3), while in moldy homes they were 178-4751 cfu/m(3) and 49-16,968 cfu/m(3), respectively. As many as 167 microbial species were isolated from the air of examined dwellings. Most frequently occurred Gram-positive cocci (Micrococcus/ Kocuria spp., Staphylococcus spp.), endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonas spp.), filamentous fungi (Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp.), and yeasts. Notable studies of indoor bioaerosols have also been performed in the other Central and Eastern European countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary, are reviewed in this article. The lack of reference limit values for bioaerosols seriously hinders interpretation of results obtained in various countries. The following residential limit values (RLV) for dwellings and communal premises are proposed for the concentration of airborne bacteria, fungi and bacterial endotoxin: 5 x 10(3) cfu/m(3), 5 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) and 5 ng/m(3) (50 EU), respectively. The proposed values of occupational exposure limit (OEL) for industrial settings contaminated by organic dust are 100 x (3) cfu/m(3), 50 x (3) cfu/m(3) and 200 ng/m(3) (2000 EU), respectively. It is also proposed that the presence in indoor air of microorganisms from risk groups 3 and 4 of European Community Directive 2000/54/EC (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis, Coxiella burnetii), independently of the concentration, should always be inadmissible and result in preventive actions.
PubMed ID
12088392 View in PubMed
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193 records – page 1 of 20.