In March 1985, the Swedish Parliament allocated financial resources for an action program to strengthen the position of women in the labor market. This program is based on the recognition that special efforts are needed to interest girls in technical subjects at preschool age and to support women entering occupational fields where men predominate. The program includes: special technology courses for girls in grades eight and nine; further training of teaching and vocational personnel concerning equal opportunities; an experimental training scheme for women whose jobs are threatened by new technology; supportive back-up groups or study circles for women who have opted for nontraditional occupations; and the appointment of a special study group to analyze conditions for women in connection with structural changes in industry. The Government also instructed the National Board of Education to follow the progress of upper secondary school girls taking technical lines of study and to ascertain the extent to which special supporting measures are needed.
This Danish law authorizes persons of the same sex to register their partnership and be treated legally in most cases as persons in heterosexual partnerships are treated, notably with respect to marriage, divorce, succession, and social and tax laws. Nonetheless, persons in such partnerships are not treated the same as heterosexuals with respect to adoption of children and the right to obtain a religious celebration of their partnership.
The objective of this work was to contribute local data concerning the full adult height of women in Cordoba, Argentina, and to explore the possibility of a secular trend in their heights. For the study, 513 women were examined during May and June 1994. All of the women were between 18 and 40 years of age and were mothers of children who were included in a study on lactation, feeding, growth, and development in CÃ³rdoba. The measurements were carried out applying standardized techniques and using as a reference standard the 50th-percentile level data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The mean full height of the CÃ³rdoba population studied was 157.9 cm, 0.97 standard deviation (SD) below the reference norm. For the women from the highest of six socioeconomic strata, the mean height was 159.7 cm (-0.67 SD); the mean for women from the lowest stratum was 156.2 cm (-1.25 SD). The difference in the means of those two socioeconomic groups was statistically significant (P
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. In most parts of the world it is a rare condition and in only a handful of places does this low risk profile alter. These include the Southern Chinese, Eskimos and other Arctic natives, inhabitants of South-East Asia and also the populations of North Africa and Kuwait.
"The structural change model of the demographic transition developed by Easterlin and others is explored empirically by applying the Brown, Durbin and Evans test of structural change to annual data from the transitions of Sweden, Norway, England and Wales, and Finland. The evidence strongly supports the structural change model over traditional models (based on gradual changes in explanatory variables), indicating a supply response of fertility to declining illness and death during the early stages of transition, and a demand response to the death of children during the latter stages, when families are likely to have achieved desired size."
"In 1990, more than 30% of the children born in France were born out of wedlock, which puts France in the second place behind Denmark in the European Community. The proportion of illegitimate births, which has been growing since the sixties, has greatly increased over the last decade. Simultaneously, the differences associated [with] the distinction between illegitimate and legitimate births have become less visible: geographical or social disparities are less noticeable, and today both married and unmarried women have children later in life." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) is determined not only by physical ability but also by the environmental and cultural surroundings of the individual. The present study describes the harmonization of data on IADL functioning of the Comparison of Longitudinal European Studies on Aging (CLESA) Project. The focus of this report is to examine the comparability of IADLs across countries and to study the association of IADLs with age, gender and socioeconomic status, and the scalability of the measure. METHODS: The study base includes data from five European countries (Finland, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden) and Israel, for older people aged 65-89 living both in the community and in institutions, for a total of 11,557 subjects. In this report, only community-dwelling respondents were included (N=8420). The common IADL items in all six countries were: preparing meals, shopping, and doing housework. The analyses include how these items are distributed by age group and gender, and the associations between independence in these items and socioeconomic status (SES) with logistic regression modeling. The scale properties of these three items are also examined. RESULTS: Independence in IADLs decreases steadily with age in all countries. Associations with gender and SES follow largely similar patterns across countries. The reliability of the 3-item scale is satisfactory in most countries, and Cronbach's alpha-coefficient for the complete CLESA sample was 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between sociodemographic variables and independence in preparing meals, shopping, and doing housework are similar across countries. Results suggest that the predictors of IADLs in different countries are comparable.
OBJECTIVE: The authors present an analysis of findings for the 65 years and over age group from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Suicidal Behaviour (1989-93). METHODS: Multinational data on non-fatal suicidal behaviour is derived from 1518 subjects in 16 European centres. Local district data on suicide were available from 10 of the collaborating centres. RESULTS: Stockholm (Sweden), Pontoise (France) and Oxford (UK) had the highest suicide attempts rates. In most centres, the majority of elderly who attempted suicide were widow(er)s, often living alone, who used predominantly voluntary drug ingestion. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour decreased with increasing age, whereas suicide rates rose. The ratio between fatal and non-fatal behaviours was 1:2, that for males/females almost 1:1. In the years considered, substantial stability in suicide and attempted suicide rates was observed. As their age increased, suicidal subjects displayed only a limited tendency to repeat self-destructive acts. Moreover, there was little correlation between attempted suicide and suicide rates, which carries different clinical implications for non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the elderly compared with younger subjects in the same WHO/EURO study.
Public perception of organ donation critically affects the availability of organ transplantation in the Western world. To assess the attitude of young adults towards the donation of organs and to investigate potential factors influencing their knowledge and actual behavior regarding organ transplantation, we evaluated a handout questionnaire survey of all Swiss-Italian recruits during six of the years 1989-98 (n = 7272). The attitude of recruits towards organ donation did not change significantly within the 10-year survey period: 61% of young men would personally donate their organs in the case of brain death, 13% would refuse, and 26% had not made up their mind. If they had to decide for close relatives, 50% would consent; 60% of recruits neither knew their next of kin's attitude nor had informed them about their own opinion; 80% felt they were insufficiently informed about organ transplantation. A significantly more positive attitude towards organ donation was found among men who felt they were sufficiently informed, who had close next of kin who were aware of their personal attitude (p