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[4 years after Chernobyl: medical repercussions]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25355
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
D. Hubert
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Date
1990
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Abortion, Habitual - epidemiology
Blood Cell Count
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Decontamination - methods
Diarrhea - etiology
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prognosis
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries - complications - epidemiology - therapy
Skin - radiation effects
Triage
Ukraine
Abstract
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
PubMed ID
2205311 View in PubMed
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The 6-F nitinol TrapEase inferior vena cava filter: results of a prospective multicenter trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195125
Source
J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001 Mar;12(3):299-304
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
H. Rousseau
P. Perreault
P. Otal
L. Stockx
J. Golzarian
V. Oliva
P. Reynaud
F. Raat
F. Szatmari
G. Santoro
G. Emanuelli
M. Nonent
Y. Hoogeveen
Author Affiliation
Radiology Department, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France. rousseau.h@chu-toulouse.fr
Source
J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001 Mar;12(3):299-304
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alloys
Canada
Equipment Design
Europe
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Embolism - prevention & control
Risk
Time Factors
Vena Cava Filters - adverse effects
Venous Thrombosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The authors report the first results of a new 6-F symmetrically designed permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, the Cordis TrapEase, evaluated in a multicenter prospective study with 6-months of follow-up.
A total of 65 patients (29 men, 36 women) who ranged in age from 37 to 96 years (mean age, 68 years) and who were at high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) were enrolled in 12 centers in Europe and Canada. The study was approved by the institutional review boards at all centers. Study objectives were to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability, and caval occlusion. Indications for filter placement were deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation in 37 patients, and complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation in 28 patients. Follow-up included clinical examination, plain film, Doppler ultrasound, CT scan, and nuclear medicine.
The analysis of the data revealed a technical success of 95.4% (three filter-system related implantations not at the intended site, no events of filter tilting) and a clinical success of 100% at 6 months (no cases of symptomatic PE), the study primary endpoint. There were no cases (0%) of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study period, there were two cases of filter thrombosis: one case of early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital, and one case of nonsymptomatic filter thrombosis detected at 1-month follow-up, with spontaneous recanalization at 3 months. In the latter patient, some residual thrombus was still detected at 6 months. Of the study population of 65 patients, there were 23 deaths. These deaths were not related to the device or the implantation procedure but to the underlying disease process.
This study demonstrates the new nitinol permanent IVC filter to be a safe and an effective device, with a low overall complication rate, for use in patients with thromboembolic disease at high risk of PE.
PubMed ID
11287505 View in PubMed
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A 15-month evaluation of the effects of repeated subgingival minocycline in chronic adult periodontitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201582
Source
J Periodontol. 1999 Jun;70(6):657-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
D. van Steenberghe
B. Rosling
P O Söder
R G Landry
U. van der Velden
M F Timmerman
E F McCarthy
G. Vandenhoven
C. Wouters
M. Wilson
J. Matthews
H N Newman
Author Affiliation
Catholic University, Leuven, Belgium.
Source
J Periodontol. 1999 Jun;70(6):657-67
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans - drug effects
Analysis of Variance
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage
Campylobacter - drug effects
Canada
Chronic Disease
Colony Count, Microbial
Dental Plaque Index
Dental Scaling
Double-Blind Method
Eikenella corrodens - drug effects
Europe
Female
Fusobacterium nucleatum - drug effects
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Minocycline - administration & dosage
Ointments
Periodontal Index
Periodontal Pocket - drug therapy - microbiology
Periodontitis - drug therapy - microbiology
Porphyromonas gingivalis - drug effects
Prevotella intermedia - drug effects
Statistics, nonparametric
Treatment Outcome
Treponema - drug effects
Abstract
A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
PubMed ID
10397521 View in PubMed
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The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6586
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2006
Author
Tero Härkönen
Rune Dietz
Peter Reijnders
Jonas Teilmann
Karin Harding
Ailsa Hall
Sophie Brasseur
Ursula Siebert
Simon J Goodman
Paul D Jepson
Thomas Dau Rasmussen
Paul Thompson
Author Affiliation
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden. tero.harkonen@swipnet.se
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Date
Jan-30-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Carnivora
Comparative Study
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Disease Vectors
Distemper - epidemiology - mortality - pathology
Distemper Virus, Phocine
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Male
Morbillivirus - classification - pathogenicity
Phoca - virology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread to adjacent colonies in a stepwise fashion. However, this pattern was not maintained throughout the epidemics and new centres of infection appeared far from infected populations on some occasions: in 1988 early positive cases were observed in the Irish Sea, and in 2002 the epidemic appeared in the Dutch Wadden Sea, 6 wk after the initiation of the outbreak at Anholt Island. Since the harbour seal is a rather sedentary species, such 'jumps' in the spread among colonies suggest that another vector species could have been involved. We discussed the role of sympatric species as disease vectors, and suggested that grey seal populations could act as reservoirs for PDV if infection rates in sympatric species are lower than in harbour seals. Alternatively, grey seals could act as subclinical infected carriers of the virus between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Mixed colonies of grey and harbour seal colonies are found at all locations where the jumps occurred. It seems likely that grey seals, which show long-distance movements, contributed to the spread among regions. The harbour seal populations along the Norwegian coast and in the Baltic escaped both epidemics, which could be due either to genetic differences among harbour seal populations or to immunity. Catastrophic events such as repeated epidemics should be accounted for in future models and management strategies of wildlife populations.
PubMed ID
16532603 View in PubMed
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Absence of association between the INSIG2 gene polymorphism (rs7566605) and obesity in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95295
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Vimaleswaran Karani S
Franks Paul W
Brage Soren
Sardinha Luis B
Andersen Lars B
Wareham Nicholas J
Ekelund Ulf
Loos Ruth J F
Author Affiliation
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Estonia
Europe
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics
Lipids - blood
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Obesity - blood - ethnology - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Waist Circumference - genetics
Abstract
The first genome-wide association study for BMI identified a polymorphism, rs7566605, 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) transcription start site, as the most significantly associated variant in children and adults. Subsequent studies, however, showed inconsistent association of this polymorphism with obesity traits. This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Hence, we investigated the association of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity- and lipid-related traits in Danish and Estonian children (930 boys and 1,073 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of pre- and early pubertal children. The association between the polymorphism and obesity traits was tested using additive and recessive models adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity and country. Interactions were tested by including the interaction terms in the model. Despite having sufficient power (98%) to detect the previously reported effect size for association with BMI, we did not find significant effects of rs7566605 on BMI (additive, P = 0.68; recessive, P = 0.24). Accordingly, the polymorphism was not associated with overweight (P = 0.87) or obesity (P = 0.34). We also did not find association with waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, or with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. There were no gender-specific (P = 0.55), age-group-specific (P = 0.63) or country-specific (P = 0.56) effects. There was also no evidence of interaction between genotype and physical activity (P = 0.95). Despite an adequately powered study, our findings suggest that rs7566605 is not associated with obesity-related traits and lipids in the EYHS.
PubMed ID
19197262 View in PubMed
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Absence of indigenous specific West Nile virus antibodies in Tyrolean blood donors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134646
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;31(1):77-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
S T Sonnleitner
J. Simeoni
E. Schmutzhard
M. Niedrig
F. Ploner
H. Schennach
M P Dierich
G. Walder
Author Affiliation
Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Fritz Pregl Straße 1-3/III, Innsbruck, Austria. sissyson@gmx.at
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;31(1):77-81
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Blood Donors
Child, Preschool
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - immunology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Europe
False Positive Reactions
Female
Humans
Italy
Male
Middle Aged
Neutralization Tests
West Nile Fever - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
West Nile virus - immunology
Abstract
In the last several years, West Nile virus (WNV) was proven to be present especially in the neighboring countries of Austria, such as Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, as well as in eastern parts of Austria, where it was detected in migratory and domestic birds. In summer 2010, infections with WNV were reported from Romania and northern Greece with about 150 diseased and increasingly fatal cases. We tested the sera of 1,607 blood donors from North Tyrol (Austria) and South Tyrol (Italy) for antibodies against WNV by using IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial results of the ELISA tests showed seroprevalence rates of 46.2% in North Tyrol and 0.5% in South Tyrol, which turned out to be false-positive cross-reactions with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by adjacent neutralization assays. These results indicate that seropositivity against WNV requires confirmation by neutralization assays, as cross-reactivity with TBEV is frequent and because, currently, WNV is not endemic in the study area.
PubMed ID
21556676 View in PubMed
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Access and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84779
Source
Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1244-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Aceijas Carmen
Hickman Matthew
Donoghoe Martin C
Burrows Dave
Stuikyte Raminta
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (CRDHB), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Department of Public Health and Policy, London, UK.
Source
Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1244-50
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia, Central - epidemiology
Demography
Europe, Eastern - epidemiology
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control
Health Services Accessibility - standards - statistics & numerical data
Hepatitis C - prevention & control
Humans
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs - economics - organization & administration - supply & distribution
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate access, activity and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. METHODS: Two data sets ('regional' and 'high-coverage sites') were used to estimate NSP provision (availability/number of sites), NSP utilization (syringes distributed/year), needle and syringe distribution (needles/syringes distributed/IDU/year), IDU reached (number/percentage of IDU contacted/year), regular reach (five or more contacts/month) and syringe coverage (percentage of injections/IDU/year administrable with new injecting equipment). RESULTS: Regional data set: results from 213 sites in 25 countries suggested that Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Ukraine had > 10 NSP during 2001/2. Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine had >or= 10,000 IDU in contact with NSP. Ten countries reached >or= 10% of the estimated IDU population. The 25 countries distributed approximately 17 million syringes/needles. Eight countries distributed > 0.5 million syringes/year. Syringe coverage (assuming 400 injections/IDU/year) was 15% in Macedonia. Overall syringe coverage was 1.2% and when assuming 700 injections/IDU/year it decreased to 0.7%. Syringe coverage for the IDU population in contact with NSP was 60% in Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova and Tajikistan. Overall syringe coverage for the population in contact with NSP was 9.8%. High-coverage data set: Soligorsk, Pskov and Sumy's NSP reached 92.3%, 92.2% and 73.3% of their estimated IDU population, respectively (regular reach: 0.2%, 1.8% and 22.7%). The distribution levels were 47.2, 51.7 and 94.2 syringes/IDU/year, respectively. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests suboptimal levels of NSP implementation, programme activity and coverage. This paper provides a baseline for development of indicators that could be used to monitor NSP. Strategies to increase coverage that may go beyond NSP are urgently required, as is research into understanding how NSP can contribute to better syringe coverage among IDU.
Notes
Comment In: Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1179-8017624968
PubMed ID
17565564 View in PubMed
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1372 records – page 1 of 138.