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281 records – page 1 of 29.

Source
IPPF Med Bull. 1969;3(2):4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1969
Source
IPPF Med Bull. 1969;3(2):4
Date
1969
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Abortion, Therapeutic
Developed Countries
Europe
Family Planning Services
Great Britain
Incidence
Research
Research Design
Abstract
Last month saw the end of the first year of operation of the Abortion Act in Britian, and statistics are now available for the first 10 months, from April 1968, to February 1969. In that time, legal, notified abortions totalled 28,849, of which 20,746 were on the grounds of risk of injury to the physical or mental health of the women. A further 1350 were carried out because of risk to the life of the woman, 1137 because of risk to the physical or mental health of existing children, 965 because of the risk of the woman bearing a physically or mentally handicapped child, and 52 as emergencies to save the life of the woman or prevent grace injury to her health. Another 4599 abortions were carried out for more than 1 of these reasons. An earlier set of statistics, covering the period up to December 1968, showed that 22,256 abortions legally carried out up to then, 13,609 were in National Health Service hospitals and 8601 in other approved hospitals. It is likely that the total number of legal abortions in Britain for the first full year of the Act will be about 34,000. In the years leading up to the introduction of the Abortion Act, the number of abortions carried out in Britain for reasons then legal had been growing steadily, and had reached 7600 in National Health Service hospitals in 1967. An unknown further number of legal abortions had been done in private nursing homes - these cannot be computed because they were not notifiable before the Abortion Act came into force. There are 4 legal abortions for every 100 live births in Britain; this is about 1/2 the figure for Denmark and one tenth that of Czechoslovakia.
PubMed ID
12255617 View in PubMed
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Addressing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in penitentiary hospitals and in the general population of the former Soviet Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69465
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
F. Portaels
L. Rigouts
I. Bastian
Author Affiliation
Mycobacteriology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. portaels@itg.be
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Hospitals, Special
Humans
Incidence
Male
Prisons - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
High rates of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), have been reported from the former Soviet Union. Our laboratory has supported operational studies in jails in Baku, Azerbaijan, and Mariinsk, Siberia. Combining the results from these two penal systems, the rates of MDR-TB among 'newly enrolled' and 'non-responding' cases were 24.6% and 92.1%, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies strongly suggest transmission of MDR-TB between prisoners. In Mariinsk, the high rates of MDR-TB have been associated with failure rates of 23%-50% among smear-positive cases receiving fully-supervised standard short-course treatment. There are no coherent guidelines for TB control programmes confronted by high pre-existing levels of MDR-TB but who have only limited laboratory, clinical, pharmaceutical and financial resources. A 'DOTS plus' strategy has been advocated in which an established TB control programme is complemented by facilities to treat MDR-TB patients. However, the exact format of these programmes remains unresolved. Further research is required to describe the natural history of MDR-TB infection, to determine the failure rate of (and the additional resistance induced by) standard short-course treatment when MDR-TB is prevalent, to decide whether standardised or individualised second-line regimens can be employed, and to define the laboratory facilities required by a 'DOTS plus' programme.
PubMed ID
10423220 View in PubMed
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The aetiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3952
Source
Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001 Apr;26(2):82-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
A L McDermott
S N Dutt
J C Watkinson
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.
Source
Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001 Apr;26(2):82-92
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - epidemiology
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asia - epidemiology
Carcinoma - classification - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. In most parts of the world it is a rare condition and in only a handful of places does this low risk profile alter. These include the Southern Chinese, Eskimos and other Arctic natives, inhabitants of South-East Asia and also the populations of North Africa and Kuwait.
PubMed ID
11309046 View in PubMed
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AIDS incidence rates in Europe and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7962
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
S. Franceschi
L. Dal Maso
C. La Vecchia
E. Negri
D. Serraino
Author Affiliation
Servizio di Epidemiologia, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano, Italy.
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
Age Factors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Comparative Study
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Information Systems
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. DESIGN: AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, and for comparative purposes, the United States. METHODS: Incidence rates were standardized using the world standard population for all ages, from 1985 to 1992. The data were derived from the WHO European Non-Aggregate AIDS Dataset and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) AIDS Public Information Dataset, adjusted for reporting delays in each country. RESULTS: The AIDS incidence rate for men (81 in 1,000,000) in the United States was fourfold higher than the highest rate in a European country (Switzerland) in 1985; incidence rates in all other European countries, except France and Denmark, were below 10 in 1,000,000. Subsequently, AIDS incidence has increased more rapidly in southern Europe than in the rest of the continent. The estimated incidence rate for men in Spain (243 in 1,000,000) approached that in the United States (304 in 1,000,000) in 1992, and three additional countries (France, Switzerland and Italy) showed rates above 100 per million. The spread of the AIDS epidemic among women in some southern European countries was faster than in the United States. In Switzerland and Spain the standardized incidence rates in women were higher than in the United States by 1988 and 1992, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis trends in incidence rates avoids some weaknesses of AIDS statistics based on absolute numbers, and should become one of the standard tools for AIDS surveillance.
PubMed ID
7986418 View in PubMed
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Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15-16 year old students in 11 European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9740
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 2003 Mar;64(2):200-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Thoroddur Bjarnason
Barbro Andersson
Marie Choquet
Zsuzsanna Elekes
Mark Morgan
Gertrude Rapinett
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12222, USA. thor@albany.edu
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 2003 Mar;64(2):200-8
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholism - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Culture
Europe - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Frequency of heavy alcohol use among adolescents is examined by family structure and propensity toward heavy alcohol use on the individual level, and by alcohol availability and drinking patterns among adolescents on the societal level. The analysis includes direct effects and moderating effects of societal-level indicators on individual-level associations between family structure and frequency of heavy alcohol use. METHOD: The study drew upon self-reports from 34,001 students in Cyprus, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom participating in the 1999 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study. Distinctions were drawn between adolescents living with both parents, a single mother, a single father, a mother and stepfather, a father and stepmother, and neither biological parent. The multilevel analysis estimated the effects of societal-level factors on the intercepts and slopes of individual-level regression models. RESULTS: Adolescents living with both biological parents engaged less frequently in heavy alcohol use than those living in any other arrangements. Living with a single mother was associated with less heavy drinking than living with a single father or with neither biological parent. National beer sales figures and societal patterns of heavy adolescent alcohol use predicted more frequent heavy drinking and greater effects of living in nonintact families. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent heavy drinking is more common in all types of nonintact families. The adverse effect of living in nonintact families is greater in societies where alcohol availability is greater and where adolescents drink more heavily.
PubMed ID
12713193 View in PubMed
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An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80610
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2006 Dec;17(12):1726-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Johnell O.
Kanis J A
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2006 Dec;17(12):1726-33
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Americas - epidemiology
Disability Evaluation
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Forearm Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology - etiology
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Humeral Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - complications - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prognosis
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Spinal Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. METHODS: The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. RESULTS: In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). CONCLUSION: We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
PubMed ID
16983459 View in PubMed
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An ethnic role for chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20034
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
M. Remberger
J. Aschan
B. Lönnqvist
S. Carlens
B. Gustafsson
P. Hentschke
S. Klaesson
J. Mattsson
P. Ljungman
O. Ringdén
Author Affiliation
Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden. Mats.Remberger@impi.ki.se
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Anemia, Aplastic - therapy
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytomegalovirus - growth & development
Cytomegalovirus Infections - ethnology - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Fanconi Anemia - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Survival
Graft vs Host Disease - ethnology - etiology - immunology
HLA Antigens - immunology
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects
Histocompatibility
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Life tables
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolism, Inborn Errors - therapy
Middle Aged
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens - immunology
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasms - therapy
Nuclear Family
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scandinavia - ethnology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Virus Activation
Abstract
Among 424 HLA identical siblings undergoing stem cell transplantation, 364 were Scandinavians and 60 represented other ethnic groups. The cumulative probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV were similar in both groups, 17% in Scandinavians and 12% in the others, p = 0.4. In a multivariate analysis, less effective immune suppression with cyclosporine or methotrexate alone (p = 0.001), recipient seropositive for three to four herpes viruses (p = 0.004), CMV-seropositive recipient (p = 0.05) and early engraftment (before day 15) (p = 0.05) were independent risk-factors for acute GVHD grades II-IV. The cumulative probabilities of chronic GVHD were 47% and 68% in the two ethnic populations, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, higher patient age (p
PubMed ID
11168508 View in PubMed
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[An influenza pandemic in Russia as a part of a global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009-2011].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115693
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2012 Nov-Dec;57(6):26-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
L S Karpova
M Iu Pelikh
K A Stoliarov
N M Popovtseva
T P Stoliarova
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2012 Nov-Dec;57(6):26-30
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Europe - epidemiology
Hospitalization
Humans
Incidence
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - mortality
Pandemics
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Abstract
The comparison of the first and second waves of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the world and Russia was performed on the basis of weekly reports of Regional offices for Europe and on the data of the Federal Center for Influenza on a weekly incidence of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, hospitalization, and mortality from the influenza in the age groups of population in 49 cities of the Russian Federation. The first wave of the pandemic, which continued in the countries of the world all summer, was of mixed etiology and, in spite of the availability of imported cases, has not caused a steep increase in Russia. The second wave of the pandemic in the countries of the Southern hemisphere was less intense. In the countries of the Northern hemisphere (in autumn 2009), on the contrary, it was more intensive, which was associated with different seasonality of influenza in these hemispheres. In Russia, the second wave (2011) was of a lesser intensity as compared to the first with respect to the duration in the country and in urban areas, the incidence in the entire population, including schoolchildren and adults, the rate of hospitalization and case fatality rate reduction of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. The duration of the last pandemic of 2009 was the same as in 1957 and 1968, and longer than in 1977. The morbidity was one-half less than in the pandemic of 1957 and 1968, and was approaching the pandemic 1977. At the same time, the incidence in children 3-6 and 7-14 years was higher than in previous pandemics.
PubMed ID
23477251 View in PubMed
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281 records – page 1 of 29.