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Absence of linkage of phonological coding dyslexia to chromosome 6p23-p21.3 in a large family data set.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204108
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;63(5):1448-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
L L Field
B J Kaplan
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgry, Alberta, Canada. field@ucalgary.ca
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;63(5):1448-56
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Alberta
Alleles
Auditory Perception
Child
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6
Dyslexia - genetics - physiopathology
Europe - ethnology
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genetic Linkage
Genetic markers
Genotype
Humans
Lod Score
Nuclear Family
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that a locus predisposing to specific reading disability (dyslexia) resides on chromosome 6p23-p21.3. We investigated 79 families having at least two siblings affected with phonological coding dyslexia, the most common form of reading disability (617 people genotyped, 294 affected), and we tested for linkage with the genetic markers reported to be linked to dyslexia in those studies. No evidence for linkage was found by LOD score analysis or affected-sib-pair methods. However, using the affected-pedigree-member (APM) method, we detected significant evidence for linkage and/or association with some markers when we used published allele frequencies with weighting of rarer alleles. APM results were not significant when we used marker allele frequencies estimated from parents. Furthermore, results were not significant with the more robust SIMIBD method using either published or parental marker frequencies. Finally, family-based association analysis using the AFBAC program showed no evidence for association with any marker. We conclude that the APM method should be used only with extreme caution, because it appears to have generated false-positive results. In summary, using a large data set with high power to detect linkage, we were unable to find evidence for linkage or association between phonological coding dyslexia and chromosome 6p markers.
Notes
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Erratum In: Am J Hum Genet 1999 Jan;64(1):334
PubMed ID
9792873 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30268
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Niklas Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 23000, S-104 35 Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.langstrom@cns.ki.se
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Analysis of Variance
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence - prevention & control
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
PubMed ID
15208896 View in PubMed
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Age at onset of multiple sclerosis may be influenced by place of residence during childhood rather than ancestry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170585
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26(3):162-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
J. Kennedy
P. O'Connor
A D Sadovnick
M. Perara
I. Yee
B. Banwell
Author Affiliation
The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. L5M 4A7, Canada.
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26(3):162-7
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) most commonly affects individuals of Northern European descent who live in countries at high latitude. The relative contributions of ancestry, country of birth and residence as determinants of MS risk have been studied in adult MS, but have not been explored in the pediatric MS population. In this study, we compare the demographics of pediatric- and adult-onset MS patients cared for in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a multicultural region. The country of birth, residence during childhood, and ancestry were compared for 44 children and 573 adults. Our results demonstrate that although both the pediatric and adult cohorts were essentially born and raised in the same region of Ontario, Canada, children with MS were more likely to report Caribbean, Asian or Middle Eastern ancestry, and were less likely to have European heritage compared with individuals with adult-onset MS. The difference in ancestry between the pediatric and adult MS cohorts can be explained by two hypotheses: (1) individuals raised in a region of high MS prevalence, but whose ancestors originate from regions in which MS is rare, have an earlier age of MS onset, and (2) the place of residence during childhood, irrespective of ancestry, determines lifetime MS risk -- a fact that will be reflected in a change in the demographics of the adult MS cohort in our region as Canadian-raised children of recent immigrants reach the typical age of adult-onset MS.
PubMed ID
16493204 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-related disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden: a national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9536
Source
Addiction. 2004 Feb;99(2):229-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Anders Hjern
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Centre for Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden. anders.hjern@sos.se
Source
Addiction. 2004 Feb;99(2):229-36
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Emigration and Immigration
Europe - ethnology
Female
Finland - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Middle East - ethnology
Multivariate Analysis
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
AIMS: The risk of alcohol-related disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden were investigated and compared with the Swedish majority population to assess how alcohol habits are modified over generations in a new society. DESIGN: Register study based on multivariate analyses of demographic data, including information on country of birth, from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 linked to data on hospital admissions for alcohol-related disorders during 1990-99 in the National Hospital Discharge Register. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of a national cohort of 1.25 million youth born 1968-79 and 1.47 million adults born 1929-65. RESULTS: First- and second-generation immigrants from Finland had higher relative risks (RRs) for hospital admission because of an alcohol-related disorder compared to the Swedish majority population (socio-economic adjusted RRs 2.1 and 1.9, respectively), while first-generation immigrants born in southern Europe, the Middle East and other non-European countries had lower risks. Second-generation immigrants with heritage in southern Europe, the Middle East and other non-European countries had socio-economic adjusted RRs that were higher relative to the first generation immigrants but lower relative to the Swedish majority population. Intercountry adoptees had the highest adjusted RR (2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of alcohol abuse in the country of origin are strong determinants of alcohol-related disorders in first-generation immigrants. The patterns in second-generation immigrants are influenced by parental countries of origin as well as patterns in the majority population. The Finnish minority and intercountry adoptees are of particular concern in prevention.
PubMed ID
14756715 View in PubMed
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An ethnic role for chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20034
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
M. Remberger
J. Aschan
B. Lönnqvist
S. Carlens
B. Gustafsson
P. Hentschke
S. Klaesson
J. Mattsson
P. Ljungman
O. Ringdén
Author Affiliation
Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden. Mats.Remberger@impi.ki.se
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Anemia, Aplastic - therapy
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytomegalovirus - growth & development
Cytomegalovirus Infections - ethnology - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Fanconi Anemia - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Survival
Graft vs Host Disease - ethnology - etiology - immunology
HLA Antigens - immunology
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects
Histocompatibility
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Life tables
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolism, Inborn Errors - therapy
Middle Aged
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens - immunology
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasms - therapy
Nuclear Family
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scandinavia - ethnology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Virus Activation
Abstract
Among 424 HLA identical siblings undergoing stem cell transplantation, 364 were Scandinavians and 60 represented other ethnic groups. The cumulative probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV were similar in both groups, 17% in Scandinavians and 12% in the others, p = 0.4. In a multivariate analysis, less effective immune suppression with cyclosporine or methotrexate alone (p = 0.001), recipient seropositive for three to four herpes viruses (p = 0.004), CMV-seropositive recipient (p = 0.05) and early engraftment (before day 15) (p = 0.05) were independent risk-factors for acute GVHD grades II-IV. The cumulative probabilities of chronic GVHD were 47% and 68% in the two ethnic populations, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, higher patient age (p
PubMed ID
11168508 View in PubMed
Less detail

An X-chromosome scan reveals a locus for fat distribution in chromosome region Xp21-22.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190043
Source
Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1989-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
R Arlen Price
Wei-Dong Li
Robin Kilker
Author Affiliation
Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6140, USA. arlen@bgl.psycha.upenn.edu
Source
Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1989-91
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
African Continental Ancestry Group
Body Composition - genetics
Body Constitution - genetics
Body mass index
Chromosome Mapping
Europe - ethnology
Female
Finland
France
Genetic Linkage
Genotype
Humans
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
United States
X Chromosome
Abstract
Several groups have completed autosomal genome scans for human obesity, but only two have examined the X chromosome. A French group reported linkage of BMI to Xp and Xq markers, and a Finnish group reported linkage of BMI to Xq. We scanned the X chromosome in two cohorts, 190 European-American families (940 members) and 43 African-American families (208 members). We examined five correlated obesity phenotypes, BMI, body fat percentage, hip and waist circumferences, and plasma leptin concentration. We also examined leptin resistance (leptin/BMI) and fat patterning (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). Variables were adjusted for age within generation, race, and sex. We genotyped 20 markers with average spacing of 10 cM and no interval >22 cM and conducted nonparametric analyses. Suggestive linkage was found for WHR only. Linkage was supported in both family sets, and support was especially strong for females. Z scores for analyses of female phenotypes were 2.69, 1.73, and 2.37 (P = 0.0036, 0.0418, and 0.0089) for African-Americans, European-Americans, and the combined sample, respectively. The peaks were 51-73 cM from the p terminus, 14-34 cM distal of the French report in Xp22. Our results suggest that a quantitative trait locus influencing fat distribution in women may lie in chromosome region Xp21-22; however, the linked interval is large and differs substantially from that of the French and Finnish groups. Given the positive but divergent results, it would be worthwhile for others to examine the X chromosome.
PubMed ID
12031991 View in PubMed
Less detail

Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second-generation immigrants according to parental place of origin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277201
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;62(2):186-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Roger T Webb
Sussie Antonsen
Carsten B Pedersen
Pearl L H Mok
Elizabeth Cantor-Graae
Esben Agerbo
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;62(2):186-97
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Child
Denmark
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Greenland - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Middle East - ethnology
Regression Analysis
Suicide, Attempted - ethnology
Violence - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second-generation immigrants.
To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second-generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population.
Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N?=?1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes.
In virtually all subgroups of second-generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations.
Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored towards specific second-generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence.
PubMed ID
26613752 View in PubMed
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Beh├žet's disease: a review and a report of 12 cases from Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220635
Source
Acta Derm Venereol. 1993 Aug;73(4):251-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
L. Ek
E. Hedfors
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, Lunds University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Acta Derm Venereol. 1993 Aug;73(4):251-4
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behcet Syndrome - diagnosis - ethnology - immunology
Brain Diseases - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Eye Diseases - etiology
Female
Female Urogenital Diseases - etiology
HLA-B Antigens - blood
Humans
Male
Male Urogenital Diseases
Middle Aged
Mouth Diseases - etiology
Musculoskeletal Diseases - etiology
Peripheral Vascular Diseases - etiology
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Skin Diseases - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Ulcer
Abstract
In a retrospective study of 12 patients with Behçet's disease, more than half were found to originate from the Near East, where the prevalence of the disease is known to be high. The immigrant patients were all males, whereas 3 of the 5 patients with Swedish ancestry were females. Certain differences emerged between the two groups, including different sex ratio and absence of HLA B5 association and pathergy skin reaction among the Swedish patients. Moreover, serious neurological and ocular symptoms showing no tendency to recede with age afflicted all the Swedish female patients. Urogenital symptoms were, besides ulcers, common in both groups, including prostatitis, urethritis, orchitis, chronic sterile cystitis and relapsing salpingitis. Although the maternal does not allow statistical inferences, the estimated prevalence was higher than expected among both Swedish and immigrant patients. Recent studies, including the diagnostic criteria proposed by the "International Study Group for Behçet's disease", are discussed in relation to previously used criteria as well as present findings. The sensitivity and specificity of the first mentioned criteria and the ones proposed by Mason & Barnes seemed equal.
PubMed ID
7904097 View in PubMed
Less detail

Body size and physique among Canadians of First Nation and European ancestry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203144
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb;108(2):161-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
P T Katzmarzyk
R M Malina
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada. katzmarz@yorku.ca
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb;108(2):161-72
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Body constitution
Child
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Sex Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare body size and physique among Canadians of Aboriginal (First Nation [FN]) and European ancestry (EA) from the northern Ontario communities of Temagami and Bear Island. The sample consisted of 130 FN and 494 EA participants including adults (20-75 years: 214 men, 234 women) and youth (5-19 years: 97 boys, 79 girls). Indicators of body size and physique included stature, the sitting height-to-stature ratio (SSR), body mass, BMI, estimated upper-arm muscle area, biacromial, bicristal, biepicondylar, and bicondylar breadths, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy). There were few differences in body size between FN and EA, with the exception of adult females. Adult FN females were significantly heavier and had greater bone breadths than EA women (P
PubMed ID
9988379 View in PubMed
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125 records – page 1 of 13.