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Absence of association between the INSIG2 gene polymorphism (rs7566605) and obesity in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95295
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Vimaleswaran Karani S
Franks Paul W
Brage Soren
Sardinha Luis B
Andersen Lars B
Wareham Nicholas J
Ekelund Ulf
Loos Ruth J F
Author Affiliation
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Estonia
Europe
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics
Lipids - blood
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Obesity - blood - ethnology - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Waist Circumference - genetics
Abstract
The first genome-wide association study for BMI identified a polymorphism, rs7566605, 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) transcription start site, as the most significantly associated variant in children and adults. Subsequent studies, however, showed inconsistent association of this polymorphism with obesity traits. This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Hence, we investigated the association of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity- and lipid-related traits in Danish and Estonian children (930 boys and 1,073 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of pre- and early pubertal children. The association between the polymorphism and obesity traits was tested using additive and recessive models adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity and country. Interactions were tested by including the interaction terms in the model. Despite having sufficient power (98%) to detect the previously reported effect size for association with BMI, we did not find significant effects of rs7566605 on BMI (additive, P = 0.68; recessive, P = 0.24). Accordingly, the polymorphism was not associated with overweight (P = 0.87) or obesity (P = 0.34). We also did not find association with waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, or with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. There were no gender-specific (P = 0.55), age-group-specific (P = 0.63) or country-specific (P = 0.56) effects. There was also no evidence of interaction between genotype and physical activity (P = 0.95). Despite an adequately powered study, our findings suggest that rs7566605 is not associated with obesity-related traits and lipids in the EYHS.
PubMed ID
19197262 View in PubMed
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The acceptability of isoflavones as a treatment of menopausal symptoms: a European survey among postmenopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70456
Source
Climacteric. 2005 Sep;8(3):230-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
C. Koebnick
M. Reimann
A. Carlsohn
S. Korzen-Bohr
S. Bügel
J. Hallund
L. Rossi
F. Branca
W. Hall
C. Williams
H-J F Zunft
K. O'Doherty Jensen
Author Affiliation
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Department of Intervention Studies, Nuthethal, Germany.
Source
Climacteric. 2005 Sep;8(3):230-42
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Supplements
Europe
Female
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Humans
Isoflavones - therapeutic use
Life Style
Menopause
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Phytotherapy
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Vitamins - therapeutic use
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate determinants of the acceptability of isoflavone products among postmenopausal women with regard to social and lifestyle factors, dietary habits, health concerns, food beliefs, menopausal symptoms and therapies, and to elucidate preferences for specific products. METHODS: A consumer survey was conducted among postmenopausal women in four European countries (Germany, Denmark, Italy and the UK), including a total of 465 respondents. RESULTS: The declared acceptability of isoflavones was highest in Germany (80%), followed by Italy (75%), the UK (59%) and Denmark (55%; p
PubMed ID
16390755 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30268
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Niklas Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 23000, S-104 35 Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.langstrom@cns.ki.se
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Analysis of Variance
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence - prevention & control
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
PubMed ID
15208896 View in PubMed
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Across six nations: stressful events in the lives of children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35027
Source
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1996;26(3):139-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
K. Yamamoto
O L Davis
S. Dylak
J. Whittaker
C. Marsh
P C van der Westhuizen
Author Affiliation
University of Colorado at Denver 80217, USA.
Source
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1996;26(3):139-50
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Australia
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child Psychology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Europe
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Reference Values
Stress, Psychological
United States
Abstract
A total of 1,729 children (2nd-9th grades) in South Africa, Iceland, Poland, Australia, the U.K., and the U.S.A. rated 20 events in terms of how upsetting they are. Save in Poland, the ratings were in close agreement (r, .85-.97), placing the loss of parent at the top and a new baby sibling at the bottom. In Poland, the baby's arrival led the list. Even so, what was seen as quite upsetting fell everywhere in the same two categories--experiences that threaten one's sense of security and those that occasion personal denigration and embarrassment.
PubMed ID
8819876 View in PubMed
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Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65231
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
J D Forrest
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Adolescent
Age Factors
Americas
Attitude
Behavior
Birth rate
Canada
Communication
Comparative Study
Contraception
Contraception Behavior
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Demography
Developed Countries
Education
England
Europe
Family Characteristics
Family Planning Services
Family Relations
Fertility
France
Great Britain
Health Services Accessibility
Mass Media
Methods
Netherlands
North America
Organization and Administration
Parents
Population
Population Characteristics
Population Dynamics
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in adolescence
Program Evaluation
Psychology
Research
Scandinavia
Sex Education
Sexual Behavior
Sweden
Wales
Abstract
A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.
PubMed ID
12317626 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking and family structure in Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31283
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Dawn Griesbach
Amanda Amos
Candace Currie
Author Affiliation
Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU), Department of PE, Sport and Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, St. Leonard's Land, Holyrood Road, EH8 8AQ, Edinburgh, UK. dawn.griesbach@isd.csa.scot.nhs.uk
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Austria - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
Family - ethnology
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Health Behavior - ethnology
Humans
Income
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scotland - epidemiology
Smoking - ethnology
Social Change
Social Class
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between family structure and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in seven European countries. It also investigates the association between family structure and a number of known smoking risk factors including family socio-economic status, the adolescent's disposable income, parental smoking and the presence of other smokers in the adolescent's home. Findings are based on 1998 survey data from a cross-national study of health behaviours among children and adolescents. Family structure was found to be significantly associated with smoking among 15-year-olds in all countries, with smoking prevalence lowest among adolescents in intact families and highest among adolescents in stepfamilies. Multivariate analysis showed that several risk factors were associated with higher smoking prevalences in all countries, but that even after these other factors were taken into account, there was an increased likelihood of smoking among adolescents in stepfamilies. Further research is needed to determine the possible reasons for this association.
PubMed ID
12435550 View in PubMed
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Affected by the tooth of time: legislation on infectious diseases control in five European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50220
Source
Med Law. 1993;12(1-2):101-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
J. Dute
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Law, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Source
Med Law. 1993;12(1-2):101-8
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Comparative Study
Compensation and Redress
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Europe
Government Regulation
Humans
Internationality
Mandatory Programs
Patient Advocacy - legislation & jurisprudence
Public Health - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The exercise of compulsory powers for the protection of society against the spread of infectious diseases may impose severe restrictions on individual liberty. The law should therefore enable public health officials to strike the proper balance between public health and individual rights. An overview of the infectious diseases control legislation of five European countries (Germany, Switzerland, England, Sweden and the Netherlands) shows outdated medical approaches to infectious diseases, deficiencies in substantive statutory criteria and a lack of suitable procedural protection. The law has to be modified not only to fit current epidemiological insights, but also to give full weight to evolving individual rights.
PubMed ID
8377600 View in PubMed
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Alcohol advertising bans and alcohol abuse: an international perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226519
Source
J Health Econ. 1991 May;10(1):65-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1991
Author
H. Saffer
Author Affiliation
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York University, NY 10003.
Source
J Health Econ. 1991 May;10(1):65-79
Date
May-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Advertising as Topic - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcoholic Beverages - utilization
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - mortality
Models, Statistical
Public Policy
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
This paper examines the effect of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The data used in this study are a pooled time series from 17 countries for the period 1970 to 1983. The empirical results show that countries with bans on spirits advertising have about 16% lower alcohol consumption than countries with no bans and that countries with bans on beer and wine advertising have about 11% lower alcohol consumption than countries with bans only on spirits advertising.
Notes
Comment In: J Health Econ. 1993 Jul;12(2):213-2810127781
PubMed ID
10112150 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and pancreatitis mortality at the population level: experiences from 14 western countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9394
Source
Addiction. 2004 Oct;99(10):1255-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Mats Ramstedt
Author Affiliation
Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs, Stockholm University, Sweden. mats.ramstedt@sorad.su.se
Source
Addiction. 2004 Oct;99(10):1255-61
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Data Collection - methods
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pancreatitis, Alcoholic - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
AIMS: To test if there is relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis mortality at the population level. DATA AND METHODS: Annual pancreatitis death rates for 1950-95 were converted into age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants. Per capita alcohol consumption was measured by alcohol sales. The relationship was estimated with time-series analysis on data from 14 western countries. Several models were tested with different assumptions about risk function and lag structure. RESULTS: According to the assumed most appropriate model, a positive relationship was found in each country, and statistical significance was reached in all countries except from Finland, Italy and Canada. The magnitude of the association was fairly consistent across countries, with the alcohol effect parameters ranging between 0.05 and 0.14. However, Sweden and Norway deviated from this pattern with estimates between 0.30 and 0.40. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatitis joins a wide range of causes of death where the mortality rate is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption, and more so in northern Europe. It is suggested that pancreatitis mortality is an important indicator of alcohol-related harm, not least because a large amount of morbidity is likely to be connected to the mortality rate.
Notes
Comment In: Addiction. 2004 Oct;99(10):1231-215369553
PubMed ID
15369563 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90196
Source
Public Health. 2009 Feb;123(2):122-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Stock C.
Mikolajczyk R.
Bloomfield K.
Maxwell A E
Ozcebe H.
Petkeviciene J.
Naydenova V.
Marin-Fernandez B.
El-Ansari W.
Krämer A.
Author Affiliation
University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. cstock@health.sdu.dk
Source
Public Health. 2009 Feb;123(2):122-9
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Attitude
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Students - psychology
Universities - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. RESULTS: The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. CONCLUSIONS: Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.
PubMed ID
19185890 View in PubMed
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244 records – page 1 of 25.