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The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6586
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2006
Author
Tero Härkönen
Rune Dietz
Peter Reijnders
Jonas Teilmann
Karin Harding
Ailsa Hall
Sophie Brasseur
Ursula Siebert
Simon J Goodman
Paul D Jepson
Thomas Dau Rasmussen
Paul Thompson
Author Affiliation
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden. tero.harkonen@swipnet.se
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Date
Jan-30-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Carnivora
Comparative Study
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Disease Vectors
Distemper - epidemiology - mortality - pathology
Distemper Virus, Phocine
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Male
Morbillivirus - classification - pathogenicity
Phoca - virology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread to adjacent colonies in a stepwise fashion. However, this pattern was not maintained throughout the epidemics and new centres of infection appeared far from infected populations on some occasions: in 1988 early positive cases were observed in the Irish Sea, and in 2002 the epidemic appeared in the Dutch Wadden Sea, 6 wk after the initiation of the outbreak at Anholt Island. Since the harbour seal is a rather sedentary species, such 'jumps' in the spread among colonies suggest that another vector species could have been involved. We discussed the role of sympatric species as disease vectors, and suggested that grey seal populations could act as reservoirs for PDV if infection rates in sympatric species are lower than in harbour seals. Alternatively, grey seals could act as subclinical infected carriers of the virus between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Mixed colonies of grey and harbour seal colonies are found at all locations where the jumps occurred. It seems likely that grey seals, which show long-distance movements, contributed to the spread among regions. The harbour seal populations along the Norwegian coast and in the Baltic escaped both epidemics, which could be due either to genetic differences among harbour seal populations or to immunity. Catastrophic events such as repeated epidemics should be accounted for in future models and management strategies of wildlife populations.
PubMed ID
16532603 View in PubMed
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[Accidents and accident mortality in Denmark--a comparison with Scandinavia and Europe]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11630
Source
Nord Med. 1994;109(10):265-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
T B Hansen
N D Röck
A. Poulstrup
S. Sabroe
J. Steensberg
B. Netterstrøm
Author Affiliation
Ortopaedkirurgisk afd 0 og Ulykkes Analyse Gruppen, Odense Universitets Hospital.
Source
Nord Med. 1994;109(10):265-8
Date
1994
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, occupational - mortality
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Poisoning - mortality
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
As the development in mean age of the population and life expectancy has been less favourable in Denmark than in the rest of Western Europe, the Ministry of Health decided to investigate statistics for the period, 1972-1990, for the main areas where Danish life expectancy was poorer. A sharp increase in the incidence of accidental poisoning with medical drugs and alcohol during the period was found to be a factor contributing to the poorer Danish statistics during the period. In the subcategory, death after a fall, there was an increase in incidence among the elderly, but the loss of life-years remained constant. The subcategory, fatal road accidents, manifested a marked reduction in incidence, despite the increase in traffic density during the period, and there was a reduction in the loss of life-years. Thus, in the category, accidental deaths, the increase in the incidence of accidental poisonings would appear to be the only factor contributing to the poorer development in mean age and life expectancy in Denmark.
PubMed ID
7937021 View in PubMed
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[A comparative study of the evolution of atherosclerosis in men over a 25-year period in 11 European and Asiatic cities]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54287
Source
Arkh Patol. 1998 Nov-Dec;60(6):3-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A M Vikhert
V S Zhdanov
N H Sternby
J. Dusková
I E Galakhov
Author Affiliation
A. L. Myasnikov Institute of Clinical Cardiology, Russian Cardiologic Scientific Centre, Moscow.
Source
Arkh Patol. 1998 Nov-Dec;60(6):3-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aorta - pathology
Arteriosclerosis - ethnology - pathology
Asia, Central - epidemiology
Autopsy - statistics & numerical data
Comparative Study
Continental Population Groups
Coronary Vessels - pathology
Disease Progression
English Abstract
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Oceanic Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Repeated epidemiologic study of atherosclerosis in males on the basis of autopsy material with 25-year interval (1963-66 and 1985-89) has been performed in 7 European cities (Malmö, Praha, Riga, Tallinn, Tartu, Kharkov, Yalta) and 4 Asia cities (Ashkhabad, Bishkek, Irkutsk, Yakutsk). Accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the 2nd study has been revealed in males in the majority of cities except Malmö and Praha. No significant differences in atherosclerosis of aorta and coronary arteries were found in these two cities. An increase of the calcinosis surface in the coronary arteries combined with a higher incidence of coronary stenosis was typical for the 2nd study. Atherosclerosis was less pronounced in the indigenous population of Ashkhabad, Bishkek and Yakutsk in both studied than in non-indigenous populations. There was a positive correlation in males between lethality of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis. Thus, the course of atherosclerosis can change within the life of one generation.
PubMed ID
9949896 View in PubMed
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Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65231
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
J D Forrest
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Adolescent
Age Factors
Americas
Attitude
Behavior
Birth rate
Canada
Communication
Comparative Study
Contraception
Contraception Behavior
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Demography
Developed Countries
Education
England
Europe
Family Characteristics
Family Planning Services
Family Relations
Fertility
France
Great Britain
Health Services Accessibility
Mass Media
Methods
Netherlands
North America
Organization and Administration
Parents
Population
Population Characteristics
Population Dynamics
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in adolescence
Program Evaluation
Psychology
Research
Scandinavia
Sex Education
Sexual Behavior
Sweden
Wales
Abstract
A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.
PubMed ID
12317626 View in PubMed
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[Adult body height in women in Cordoba, Argentina, and exploration of the current trend (1978-198)]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33466
Source
Rev Panam Salud Publica. 1999 Jan;5(1):17-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
F. Agrelo
L R Pascual
B. Lobo
J. Sabulsky
Author Affiliation
Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Departamento de Maternidad e Infancia, Argentina.
Source
Rev Panam Salud Publica. 1999 Jan;5(1):17-22
Date
Jan-1999
Language
Spanish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Argentina
Body Height
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Growth
Humans
Japan
Nutritional Status
Reference Standards
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
The objective of this work was to contribute local data concerning the full adult height of women in Cordoba, Argentina, and to explore the possibility of a secular trend in their heights. For the study, 513 women were examined during May and June 1994. All of the women were between 18 and 40 years of age and were mothers of children who were included in a study on lactation, feeding, growth, and development in Córdoba. The measurements were carried out applying standardized techniques and using as a reference standard the 50th-percentile level data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The mean full height of the Córdoba population studied was 157.9 cm, 0.97 standard deviation (SD) below the reference norm. For the women from the highest of six socioeconomic strata, the mean height was 159.7 cm (-0.67 SD); the mean for women from the lowest stratum was 156.2 cm (-1.25 SD). The difference in the means of those two socioeconomic groups was statistically significant (P
PubMed ID
10050610 View in PubMed
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[Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents--Nordic results over the past 45 years]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33698
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1998 Aug 30;118(20):3106-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-1998
Author
P M Fredriksen
E. Thaulow
W. Nystad
F. Ingjer
Author Affiliation
Barnehjerteseksionen Rikshospitalet, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1998 Aug 30;118(20):3106-10
Date
Aug-30-1998
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Europe
Exercise - physiology
Female
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Oxygen consumption
Scandinavia
Abstract
The aim of this study was to reveal whether today's children and adolescents have lower aerobic capacity compared with earlier studies. Aerobic capacity may be defined as the highest amount of oxygen a subject is able to consume per unit of time. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is often used as a measure of aerobic capacity in children. VO2peak in 196 healthy children and adolescents of both sexes, aged 8-16 years, was measured on a graded treadmill test. The mean results of VO2peak (l.min-1) showed only small differences compared with previous studies in Scandinavia. There was, however, greater dispersion in the present study when the VO2peak-values were corrected for weight (ml.kg-1.min-1) than in the earlier studies. When compared to other countries in Europe, Norwegian subjects achieved higher values. The reason may be due to either genetic differences or to a higher level of physical activity among the Norwegian subjects.
PubMed ID
9760851 View in PubMed
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Affected by the tooth of time: legislation on infectious diseases control in five European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50220
Source
Med Law. 1993;12(1-2):101-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
J. Dute
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Law, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Source
Med Law. 1993;12(1-2):101-8
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Comparative Study
Compensation and Redress
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Europe
Government Regulation
Humans
Internationality
Mandatory Programs
Patient Advocacy - legislation & jurisprudence
Public Health - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The exercise of compulsory powers for the protection of society against the spread of infectious diseases may impose severe restrictions on individual liberty. The law should therefore enable public health officials to strike the proper balance between public health and individual rights. An overview of the infectious diseases control legislation of five European countries (Germany, Switzerland, England, Sweden and the Netherlands) shows outdated medical approaches to infectious diseases, deficiencies in substantive statutory criteria and a lack of suitable procedural protection. The law has to be modified not only to fit current epidemiological insights, but also to give full weight to evolving individual rights.
PubMed ID
8377600 View in PubMed
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[AIDS. A threat and a challenge of our time]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8757
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1986 Aug 30;106(24):1963-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-1986
Author
P G Djupesland
O. Nilsen
A. Lystad
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1986 Aug 30;106(24):1963-6
Date
Aug-30-1986
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - transmission
Africa
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
United States
West Indies
Abstract
The development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Europe is following the same course as it did in the US but is delayed by about 3 years. If this time is used properly, it may be possible to stop the epidemic at an early stage. The special epidemiology of the disease, the long incubation period, prejudice, and taboo concerning sexuality have constrained constructive and open debate on strategies and approaches. By mid-1986, 21,302 AIDS cases had been registered in the US for a prevalence rate of 88/million and 11.654 deaths had resulted. In Europe, 2,542 AIDS cases had been registered by mid-1986 for a prevalence rate varying between 0 and 17.4/million in various countries. Of the total number, 67% were homosexual or bisexual men, 10% misusers of needles, 4% hemophiliacs, and 2% transfusion related. In Norway in mid-1986, 25 persons had contracted AIDS for a prevalence rate of 6.0/million; 20 of these are dead. Over 70% of those contracting AIDS die within 2 years, for a cumulative lethality in the US and Europe as a whole slightly 50%. 20 of the Norwegian AIDS patients belonged to the homo/bisexual male risk group; 1 was a hemophiliac; 1 a blood recipient; 1 an injection misuser; and 1 was heterosexually infected. Average survival from time of diagnosis was about 6 months. Over 300 persons in Norway have been found human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody positive and the actual number of infected is calculated at 2,500. By the mid-1990s AIDS may become the most common cause of death in Norway.
PubMed ID
3775717 View in PubMed
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AIDS incidence rates in Europe and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7962
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
S. Franceschi
L. Dal Maso
C. La Vecchia
E. Negri
D. Serraino
Author Affiliation
Servizio di Epidemiologia, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano, Italy.
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
Age Factors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Comparative Study
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Information Systems
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. DESIGN: AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, and for comparative purposes, the United States. METHODS: Incidence rates were standardized using the world standard population for all ages, from 1985 to 1992. The data were derived from the WHO European Non-Aggregate AIDS Dataset and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) AIDS Public Information Dataset, adjusted for reporting delays in each country. RESULTS: The AIDS incidence rate for men (81 in 1,000,000) in the United States was fourfold higher than the highest rate in a European country (Switzerland) in 1985; incidence rates in all other European countries, except France and Denmark, were below 10 in 1,000,000. Subsequently, AIDS incidence has increased more rapidly in southern Europe than in the rest of the continent. The estimated incidence rate for men in Spain (243 in 1,000,000) approached that in the United States (304 in 1,000,000) in 1992, and three additional countries (France, Switzerland and Italy) showed rates above 100 per million. The spread of the AIDS epidemic among women in some southern European countries was faster than in the United States. In Switzerland and Spain the standardized incidence rates in women were higher than in the United States by 1988 and 1992, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis trends in incidence rates avoids some weaknesses of AIDS statistics based on absolute numbers, and should become one of the standard tools for AIDS surveillance.
PubMed ID
7986418 View in PubMed
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[Alarming health tendencies in Denmark. Stagnant changes of mortality]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73213
Source
Lakartidningen. 1994 Feb 23;91(8):724-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-23-1994
Author
S O Isacsson
Author Affiliation
Institutionen för klinisk samhllsmedicin, Lunds universitet.
Source
Lakartidningen. 1994 Feb 23;91(8):724-6
Date
Feb-23-1994
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cause of Death
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Longevity
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
PubMed ID
8189972 View in PubMed
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284 records – page 1 of 29.