In sixties and seventies small number of diphtheria cases was registered in European countries and diphtheria seems to go to be eliminated. Between 1982 and 1985 the first wave of diphtheria epidemic, and since 1990 the second wave were observes. Majority of cases during the first epidemic was registered in Soviet Union, but also in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Turkey and Sweden. Since 1990 increasing numbers of cases were registered in Russia and Ukraine. Some imported cases from these countries were observed in Bielorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Norway. Prophylactic measures undertaken in Russia and Ukraine were not sufficient. Shortage of vaccines were the most important reason of this situation. In 1992 one case and in first six months of 1993 five cases of diphtheria were imported in Poland. Production of Td vaccine started in Poland in 1991 and vaccination of adolescents in 19 as well as vaccination of some risk groups were introduced especially in the east port of country.
This review presents distribution of human listeriosis in the world including the large food-borne outbreaks in USA and Canada with the rising number of cases especially in Europe. Usefulness of food examination for L. monocytogenes is discussed. Methods for differentiation L. monocytogenes from other Listeria species and other genera are presented.
Since early May 2011 a large food-borne outbreak caused by E. coli O104:H4 affected Germany then spread over 13 European countries, U.S.A. and Canada. The outbreak strain was found to possess an unusual combination of enteroaggregative E. coli pathotype with StxII. In this report we described the molecular investigation of epidemic clone in Poland during the international outbreak. We confirmed three cases of E. coli O104:H4 infections. The molecular characteristics of the Polish E. coli O104:H4 isolates including virulence profile, antimicrobial resistance, PFGE and plasmids profiles were corresponded with Germany outbreak strains.
The measles elimination goal in European Region should be reached by the target date of 2010. Measles elimination in Europe is achievable as demonstrated by countries that have maintained high vaccination coverage against that disease and have been free of indigenous measles for several years. However, suboptimal vaccination coverage against measles mumps and rubella (MMR) in parts of European Region threatens to delay measles elimination. This report summarizes the significance of epidemiological studies for progress of measles elimination.