"Children's Dental Health in Europe" is a collaborative study of a total of 3200 children, comprising samples of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU-countries [Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Scotland (United Kingdom), Spain and Sweden] who have undergone clinical examination by well calibrated dentists. This study analyses the influence of a number of sociodemographic factors on the dental health of the actual children. Father's and/or mother's occupational status was used to determine the social class of the family, after construction of a family-social class variable, SocFam, and the accuracy of this variable was tested. In 15 of the 16 samples, both treatment provided and unmet treatment need were higher in children from low social class. The treatment need in children from low social class was significantly greater in the Belgium, German, Greek and Italian 5-year-old samples. The differences in both treatment need and treatment already received for children from high respectively low social class were significant in the Scottish and Spanish 12-year-old samples. Taking into account the total material of 1600 children in each age-group, risk indicators for caries, identified by logistic and multiple regression analyses, were social class of the family, the mother's smoking habits, and in the 5-year-olds the number of siblings.
Data on the current dental health of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight European countries has been collected by calibrated examiners. In each country a random sample of 200 children in each age group was drawn from urban primary and secondary state schools, a total of 3200 subjects. The children were examined under standardized conditions by one or two examiners in each country, all of whom had been trained and calibrated to the Swedish reference examiner and had achieved good inter- and intra-examiner consistency. Mean dmft DMFT were 1.38/1.93 in Gent (Belgium), 2.99/2.58 in Berlin (Germany), 1.62/2.35 in Athens (Greece), 2.09/1.85 in Cork (Ireland), 2.81/2.24 in Sassari (Italy), 3.06/1-82 in Dundee (Scotland), 0.85/1.75 in Valencia (Spain), and 0.80/1.94 in Stockholm (Sweden). The major components in the dmft/DMFT indices varied. Among the 5-year-old children the m component predominated in the Scottish sample, the d and f components in Berlin and the d component in Sassari. Among the 12-year-olds, a high F component influenced the index in Berlin and Stockholm, whereas in Athens and Sassari the D component was relatively high. The frequency of fissure sealants was most frequent in the Scottish. Irish and Belgian samples of 12-year-olds.
The purpose of this study was to develop methods to evaluate treatment needs (TNEED) and previous treatment (TDONE) in different populations. In the collaborative study, 'Children's Dental Health in Europe', the methods were used in connection with a clinical examination to document and compare treatment needs in 200 5-year-olds and 200 12-year-olds from each of the 8 participating countries. The study comprised a total of 3200 children from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, Spain, and Sweden. The method for calculating TNEED was validated by estimation of required time to meet the treatment needs (TNTIME). The calculated TNEED shows a clear relationship with the evaluated TNTIME, and the method is applicable to different population subgroups. The results revealed large differences in both TNEED and TDONE among the different countries and between the two age groups.
An epidemiological investigation has been initiated from Sweden with the aim to study and compare dental health, dental treatment needs and attitudes to dental care in two well-defined age-groups, children of 5 and 12 years of age, in eight EU countries. To ensure comparability of the clinical registrations, data collection was preceded by clinical calibrations of the examiners from the participating countries. All the examiners participated in a workshop with initial calibration exercises. Agreement, expressed as sensitivity, was measured between the Swedish examiner acting as the reference examiner and each of the other examiners in turn, and assessed separately for the two age-groups. For DMFS/dmfs, agreement ranged from 44.3% to 82.2%. These results were discussed and where necessary the criteria were modified and/or made more stringent, so that they were clearcut and could be adhered to consistently. In a second calibration between the Swedish and the national examiner undertaken in each of the seven countries, the inter-examiner agreement (sensitivity) varied between 85.4% and 100%. The mean sensitivity for DMFS/dmfs after the total calibration procedures was 89.5% for the 12-year olds and 91.7 for the 5-year olds. The mean sensitivity for both age-groups together was 90.6% and the corresponding value for specificity was 98.9%.