At the end of the 19th century, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was founded in New York, after a barbarous case of neglect and abuse of a girl became public. From then on, children received more and more protection. Only in the 1950s were doctors in the USA bound by law to report cases of putative physical abuse to officials. In Sweden, physical punishment of children has been forbidden since 1989, and in Germany since 2001. The existence of sexual abuse of children had been a taboo subject for centuries, even though individual attempts to break that taboo were made--e. g., by S. Freud in the theory of seduction (Verführungstheorie). Only with the birth of the women's liberation movement in the early 1970s has public awareness arisen. Due to the work of J. Bowlby in the 1950s, it became clear that children of primates need more than air, water and food, namely a relationship between the child and an adult person (attachment). To what degree the basic needs of children are being fulfilled in Western societies today is still a controversial issue.
There are remarkable differences of incidence and mortality from cervical cancer between countries and even within small countries. In developed industrial countries, incidence is slowly declining. Age distribution (middle--aged women are mostly afflicted) distinguishes cervical cancer from all other common malignant neoplasms. Known risk factors are: low social class, sexual activity early in youth, instable sexual relationships. Cervical cancer behaves like a veneral disease of low infectious power. Cervical cancer develops stepwise out of epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. The foundations of a cervical cancer control programme are laid: cytodiagnosis as screening method; well defined high risk groups; effective and not dangerous treatment of prephases and early stages of cancer. In the G.D.R. conditions for effective cancer control are good: cancer registration works stable for more than 20 years; it enables evaluation of effectivity. Cytologic screening can be fully integrated into basic gynecologic care. Medical care including prevention is free of fees and available for all women. The ultimate of goal of a cervical cancer control programme is primary prevention by detection and treatment of preneoplastic lesions (dysplasia and carcinoma in situ).
It is relatively easy to obtain a survey of the tuberculosis situation in the geographically demarcated countries of Europe. On the other hand it is impossible to acquire reliable and representative information on the majority of developing countries. Also the concept of a developing country cannot be accurately defined: the geographical, ethnic and cultural conditions predominating there may be diametrically different. In addition the paper is intended not only to take into account the present tuberculosis situation, but also to say something on the future development of tuberculosis in Europe and the developing countries during the next few years.