As the development in mean age of the population and life expectancy has been less favourable in Denmark than in the rest of Western Europe, the Ministry of Health decided to investigate statistics for the period, 1972-1990, for the main areas where Danish life expectancy was poorer. A sharp increase in the incidence of accidental poisoning with medical drugs and alcohol during the period was found to be a factor contributing to the poorer Danish statistics during the period. In the subcategory, death after a fall, there was an increase in incidence among the elderly, but the loss of life-years remained constant. The subcategory, fatal road accidents, manifested a marked reduction in incidence, despite the increase in traffic density during the period, and there was a reduction in the loss of life-years. Thus, in the category, accidental deaths, the increase in the incidence of accidental poisonings would appear to be the only factor contributing to the poorer development in mean age and life expectancy in Denmark.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. In most parts of the world it is a rare condition and in only a handful of places does this low risk profile alter. These include the Southern Chinese, Eskimos and other Arctic natives, inhabitants of South-East Asia and also the populations of North Africa and Kuwait.
A recent method of age-standardisation of relative survival ratios for cancer patients does not require calculation of age-specific relative survival ratios, as ratios of age-specific proportions between the standard population and study group at the beginning of the follow-up are used to substitute the original individual observations. This method, however, leads to direct age-standardisation with weights that are different for each patient group if the general population mortality patterns for the groups are different. This is the case in international comparisons, and in comparisons between genders and time periods. The magnitude of the bias caused by the differences in general population mortality is investigated for comparisons involving European countries and the USA. Patients in each country are assumed to have exactly the same age-specific relative survival ratios as those diagnosed in Finland in 1985-2004. An application of a properly functioning age-standardisation method should then give exactly equal age-standardised relative survival ratios for each country. However, the recent method shows substantial differences between countries, with highest relative survival for populations, where the general population mortality in the oldest ages is the highest. This source of error can thus be a serious limitation for the use of the method, and other methods that are available should then be employed.
The implications for society of increasing life span to 120 years can only be guessed, but comparing the diversity of responses to aging in different countries may give insights into the possible effect. A European Union-funded study of the recipients of community care services in 11 European countries illustrates how such studies can help identify some of the issues. The study, made possible by the availability of a multidimensional standardized assessment for community care, illustrates how diversity of social and political history and culture results in widely different patterns of dependency in those cared for at home, different levels of formal care, and informal caregiver burden. There is wide variation in living arrangements, marital status, and dependency between countries. The average age of recipients of community care is approximately 82, regardless of the average age of the national population. In Italy, which has the oldest population in Europe, dependency in people supported at home in extended families is high, with little formal care and significant levels of informal caregiver burden. In contrast the Nordic countries have lower levels of dependency and greater proportions of people with no informal caregiver. In Germany, informal caregiver burden may be related to the regulatory mechanisms rather than dependency and levels of formal care. With a life expectancy of 120, it will be these 80-year-olds who will be caring for their parents. Although humankind is resourceful, it will require a unified approach to aging to overcome the challenging diversity in our societies.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. METHODS: The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. RESULTS: In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). CONCLUSION: We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
Alefacept, human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3/immunoglobulin 1 fusion protein, binds to CD2 molecules on the surface of activated T cells, selectively targeting memory-effector (CD45RO+) T cells, which comprise more than 75% of T cells in psoriatic plaques.
To examine the efficacy and tolerability of intramuscular alefacept.
A total of 507 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.
Placebo, 10 mg of alefacept, or 15 mg of alefacept administered once weekly for 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of observation.
Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI).
Alefacept treatment was associated with dose-related significant improvements in PASI from baseline. Throughout the study, a greater percentage of patients in the 15-mg group than in the placebo group achieved a significant reduction in PASI. Of patients in the 15-mg group who achieved at least 75% PASI reduction 2 weeks after the last dose, 71% maintained at least 50% improvement in PASI throughout the 12-week follow-up. There were no opportunistic infections and no cases of disease rebound.
Intramuscular administration of alefacept was a well-tolerated and effective therapy for chronic plaque psoriasis and thus represents a convenient alternative to intravenous dosing.
METHOD: data using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) from nursing home populations in five countries (Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Japan, USA) were assembled from 396277 residents. The distribution of a new quality of life measure, 'social engagement', embedded in the RAI and found to be reliable and valid in the USA, was examined and compared in the international samples. RESULTS: in all five countries' nursing home populations engagement was highest among residents with adequate functioning in activities of daily living (ADL) and cognition, but the level of social engagement differed considerably by country among residents with poor ADL functioning, who had adequate cognition. The lowest scores were in Italy and Japan. The amount of time residents spend in activities stratified by ADL and cognition reveal the same pattern cross-culturally--cognitively impaired residents are least actively involved. CONCLUSIONS: the Minimum Data Set measure of social engagement is stable across types of residents and across nations and can serve as a marker of nursing home quality.
Common alleles of the apolipoprotein-E gene (APOE) are associated with different risks of ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic conditions in European populations. Also, the APOE allele frequencies vary widely among European countries. We estimated the proportion of differences in mortality and differences in life span that are attributable to differences in APOE allele frequencies in Europe. Mortality rates by age, sex, and APOE genotype for six countries (Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden) were used to standardize mortality rates to the allele frequencies in Italy. Differences in APOE allele frequencies explain 12%-17% of the variation among these countries in mortality in people older than 65 years and 1%-2% of the variation in life span in those older than 65 years. Differences by genotype in mortality in people older than 15 years account for about 3.5% of the genetic contribution to the variation in life span in Denmark.
The aim of this study was to investigate the use and need of assistive devices (ADs) in a cross-national European sample of very old persons, focusing on national similarities and differences as well as similarities and differences according to age and level of health status. Data from the ENABLE-AGE research project were utilized involving very old persons in Sweden, Germany, Latvia, Hungary, and the United Kingdom (UK). Personal interviews with single-living old persons were conducted (n = 1918). Of the total sample 65% reported that they had and used one or more ADs, and 24% reported unfilled need. The most commonly used ADs were devices for communication, followed by devices for mobility. Participants in Hungary and Latvia used a lower total number of ADs. Comparisons among sub-groups according to age between the Western and the Eastern European national samples showed significant differences. The result can to some extent be explained by different welfare systems and presumably differences in knowledge and awareness of ADs, and further research is called for. However, the result can serve as input for future planning and development of information, services, and community-based occupational therapy, to improve healthcare and social services for older people.
Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, PO Box 1129, 85758 Neuherberg, Germany. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between access to health care and household income have rarely included an assessment of 'forgone care', but this indicator could add to our understanding of the inverse care law. We hypothesize that reporting forgone care is more prevalent in low income groups. METHODS: The study is based on the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)', focusing on the non-institutionalized population aged 50 years or older. Data are included from France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden. The dependent variable is assessed by the following question: During the last twelve months, did you forgo any types of care because of the costs you would have to pay, or because this care was not available or not easily accessible? The main independent variable is household income, adjusted for household size and split into quintiles, calculating the quintile limits for each country separately. Information on age, sex, self assessed health and chronic disease is included as well. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The overall level of forgone care differs considerably between the five countries (e.g. about 10 percent in Greece and 6 percent in Sweden). Low income groups report forgone care more often than high income groups. This association can also be found in analyses restricted to the subsample of persons with chronic disease. Associations between forgone care and income are particularly strong in Germany and Greece. Taking the example of Germany, forgone care in the lowest income quintile is 1.98 times (95% CI: 1.08-3.63) as high as in the highest income quintile. CONCLUSION: Forgone care should be reduced even if it is not justified by an 'objective' need for health care, as it could be an independent stressor in its own right, and as patient satisfaction is a strong predictor of compliance. These efforts should focus on population groups with particularly high prevalence of forgone care, for example on patients with poor self assessed health, on women, and on low income groups. The inter-country differences point to the need to specify different policy recommendations for different countries.