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Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296915
Source
BMC Genet. 2017 12 28; 18(Suppl 1):110
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
12-28-2017
Author
Petr Triska
Nikolay Chekanov
Vadim Stepanov
Elza K Khusnutdinova
Ganesh Prasad Arun Kumar
Vita Akhmetova
Konstantin Babalyan
Eugenia Boulygina
Vladimir Kharkov
Marina Gubina
Irina Khidiyatova
Irina Khitrinskaya
Ekaterina E Khrameeva
Rita Khusainova
Natalia Konovalova
Sergey Litvinov
Andrey Marusin
Alexandr M Mazur
Valery Puzyrev
Dinara Ivanoshchuk
Maria Spiridonova
Anton Teslyuk
Svetlana Tsygankova
Martin Triska
Natalya Trofimova
Edward Vajda
Oleg Balanovsky
Ancha Baranova
Konstantin Skryabin
Tatiana V Tatarinova
Egor Prokhortchouk
Author Affiliation
Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Source
BMC Genet. 2017 12 28; 18(Suppl 1):110
Date
12-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Algorithms
Asia
DNA
Datasets as Topic
Emigration and Immigration - history
Ethnic Groups - genetics
Europe
Female
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Genotyping Techniques
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Male
Russia
Abstract
The history of human populations occupying the plains and mountain ridges separating Europe from Asia has been eventful, as these natural obstacles were crossed westward by multiple waves of Turkic and Uralic-speaking migrants as well as eastward by Europeans. Unfortunately, the material records of history of this region are not dense enough to reconstruct details of population history. These considerations stimulate growing interest to obtain a genetic picture of the demographic history of migrations and admixture in Northern Eurasia.
We genotyped and analyzed 1076 individuals from 30 populations with geographical coverage spanning from Baltic Sea to Baikal Lake. Our dense sampling allowed us to describe in detail the population structure, provide insight into genomic history of numerous European and Asian populations, and significantly increase quantity of genetic data available for modern populations in region of North Eurasia. Our study doubles the amount of genome-wide profiles available for this region. We detected unusually high amount of shared identical-by-descent (IBD) genomic segments between several Siberian populations, such as Khanty and Ket, providing evidence of genetic relatedness across vast geographic distances and between speakers of different language families. Additionally, we observed excessive IBD sharing between Khanty and Bashkir, a group of Turkic speakers from Southern Urals region. While adding some weight to the "Finno-Ugric" origin of Bashkir, our studies highlighted that the Bashkir genepool lacks the main "core", being a multi-layered amalgamation of Turkic, Ugric, Finnish and Indo-European contributions, which points at intricacy of genetic interface between Turkic and Uralic populations. Comparison of the genetic structure of Siberian ethnicities and the geography of the region they inhabit point at existence of the "Great Siberian Vortex" directing genetic exchanges in populations across the Siberian part of Asia. Slavic speakers of Eastern Europe are, in general, very similar in their genetic composition. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians have almost identical proportions of Caucasus and Northern European components and have virtually no Asian influence. We capitalized on wide geographic span of our sampling to address intriguing question about the place of origin of Russian Starovers, an enigmatic Eastern Orthodox Old Believers religious group relocated to Siberia in seventeenth century. A comparative reAdmix analysis, complemented by IBD sharing, placed their roots in the region of the Northern European Plain, occupied by North Russians and Finno-Ugric Komi and Karelian people. Russians from Novosibirsk and Russian Starover exhibit ancestral proportions close to that of European Eastern Slavs, however, they also include between five to 10 % of Central Siberian ancestry, not present at this level in their European counterparts.
Our project has patched the hole in the genetic map of Eurasia: we demonstrated complexity of genetic structure of Northern Eurasians, existence of East-West and North-South genetic gradients, and assessed different inputs of ancient populations into modern populations.
PubMed ID
29297395 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comprehensive nationwide analysis of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Finland from 1983 to 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298273
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2018 07; 146(10):1301-1307
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
I Aho
P Kivelä
M Kaijomaa
H-M Surcel
M Ristola
O Heikinheimo
J Sutinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases,Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki,Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2018 07; 146(10):1301-1307
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Africa South of the Sahara - ethnology
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Asia - ethnology
Europe, Eastern - ethnology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
HIV Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - transmission
Humans
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Prenatal Care
Prenatal Diagnosis
Prevalence
Risk factors
Viral Load - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0.001) and Eastern European origin (P = 0.043) were risk factors for missed diagnosis before pregnancy. The proportion of immigrants increased from 18% before 1999 to 75% during 2011-2013 (P
PubMed ID
29759086 View in PubMed
Less detail

Coxiella burnetii in ticks and wild birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299115
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 02; 10(2):377-385
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2019
Author
N K Tokarevich
Yu A Panferova
O A Freylikhman
O V Blinova
S G Medvedev
S V Mironov
L A Grigoryeva
K A Tretyakov
T Dimova
M M Zaharieva
B Nikolov
P Zehtindjiev
H Najdenski
Author Affiliation
Saint-Petersburg Pasteur Institute, Laboratory of Zooantroponozes, 14, ul. Mira, 197101, St. Petersburg, Russia. Electronic address: zoonoses@mail.ru.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 02; 10(2):377-385
Date
02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Animals, Wild - microbiology
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Baltic States - epidemiology
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Birds - microbiology
Bulgaria - epidemiology
Coxiella burnetii - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Disease Reservoirs - microbiology - veterinary
Europe - epidemiology
Feces - microbiology
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Ixodes - microbiology
Nymph - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prevalence
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - isolation & purification
Russia - epidemiology
Tick Infestations - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
The study objective was to get more information on C. burnetii prevalence in wild birds and ticks feeding on them, and the potentialities of the pathogen dissemination over Europe by both.
Blood, blood sera, feces of wild birds and ticks removed from those birds or from vegetation were studied at two sites in Russia: the Curonian Spit (site KK), and the vicinity of St. Petersburg (site SPb), and at two sites in Bulgaria: the Atanasovsko Lake (site AL), and the vicinity of Sofia (site SR).
C. burnetii DNA was detected in blood, feces, and ticks by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). All positive results were confirmed by Sanger's sequencing of 16SrRNA gene target fragments. The antibodies to C. burnetii in sera were detected by CFR (complement fixation reaction).
Eleven of 55 bird species captured at KK site hosted Ixodes ricinus. C. burnetii DNA was detected in three I. ricinus nymphs removed from one bird (Erithacus rubecula), and in adult ticks flagged from vegetation: 0.7% I. persulcatus (site SPb), 0.9% I. ricinus (site KK), 1.0% D. reticulatus (AL site). C. burnetii DNA was also detected in 1.4% of bird blood samples at SPb site, and in 0.5% of those at AL site. Antibodies to C. burnetii were found in 8.1% of bird sera (site SPb). C. burnetii DNA was revealed in feces of birds: 0.6% at AL site, and 13.7% at SR site.
Both molecular-genetic and immunological methods were applied to confirm the role of birds as a natural reservoir of C. burnetii. The places of wild bird stopover in Russia (Baltic region) and in Bulgaria (Atanasovsko Lake and Sofia region) proved to be natural foci of C. burnetii infection. Migratory birds are likely to act as efficient "vehicles" in dispersal of C. burnetii -infested ixodid ticks.
PubMed ID
30509727 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary changes needed to improve diet sustainability: are they similar across Europe?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299762
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 07; 72(7):951-960
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Florent Vieux
Marlene Perignon
Rozenn Gazan
Nicole Darmon
Author Affiliation
MS-Nutrition, Marseille, France. florent.vieux@ms-nutrition.com.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 07; 72(7):951-960
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Dairy Products
Diet
Diet, Vegetarian
Europe
Feeding Behavior
Female
Finland
France
Greenhouse gases
Humans
Italy
Male
Meat
Middle Aged
Nutritional Requirements
Sweden
United Kingdom
Young Adult
Abstract
It is not known whether dietary changes able to simultaneously achieve nutritional adequacy and reduce diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) are similar across Europe when cultural and gender specificities are taken into account.
Starting from each mean observed diet in five European countries (France, UK, Italy, Finland, and Sweden) and for each gender, nutritionally adequate diets departing the least from observed diet were designed with linear programming by applying stepwise 10% GHGE reductions. Other models directly minimized GHGE.
For most countries and whatever the gender, achieving nutritional adequacy implied between-food-group subtitutions (i.e., replacing items from the sugar/fat/alcohol food-group with items from the fruit and vegetables and starchy food-groups), but increased GHGE. Once nutritional adequacy was met, to decrease GHGE, the optimization process further induced within-food-groups substitutions that were reinforced by stepwise GHGE reductions. Diet modeling results showed the need for changes in consumption of animal-based products but those changes differed according to country and gender, particularly for fish, poultry, and non-liquid milk dairy. Depending on country and gender, maximal GHGE reductions achievable ranged from 62% to 78% but they induced large departures from observed diets (at least 2.8?kg/day of total absolute weight change) by modifying the quantity of at least 99% of food items.
Setting nutritional goals with no consideration for the environment may increase GHGE. However, diet sustainability can be improved by substituting food items from the sugar/fat/alcohol food group with fruit, vegetables, and starches, and country-specific changes in consumption of animal-based products. Standardized surveys and individual diet modeling are promising tools for further exploring ways to achieve sustainable diets in Europe.
PubMed ID
29402959 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289937
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2017 04 28; 17(1):116
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-28-2017
Author
Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen
Ulrik Lausten-Thomsen
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Christine Bøjsøe
Lise Pedersen
Palle Skov Bratholm
Torben Hansen
Oluf Pedersen
Jens-Christian Holm
Author Affiliation
The Children's Obesity Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital Holbæk, Smedelundsgade 60, DK 4300, Holbæk, Denmark. ter@regionsjaelland.dk.
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2017 04 28; 17(1):116
Date
04-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Biomarkers - blood
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dyslipidemias - blood - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Fasting
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Pediatric Obesity - blood - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Reference Values
Triglycerides - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity.
A population-based cohort of 2141 (1275 girls) children and adolescents aged 6 - 19 (median 11.5) years was recruited from 11 municipalities in Denmark. Additionally, a cohort of children and adolescents of 1421 (774 girls) with overweight/obesity aged 6 - 19 years (median 11.8) was recruited for the study. Height, weight, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R.
In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
28454530 View in PubMed
Less detail

Eurasian river spring flood observations support net Arctic Ocean mercury export to the atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298008
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 12 11; 115(50):E11586-E11594
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-11-2018
Author
Jeroen E Sonke
Roman Teisserenc
Lars-Eric Heimbürger-Boavida
Mariia V Petrova
Nicolas Marusczak
Theo Le Dantec
Artem V Chupakov
Chuxian Li
Colin P Thackray
Elsie M Sunderland
Nikita Tananaev
Oleg S Pokrovsky
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/Institute for Research and Development/Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse III, 31400 Toulouse, France; jeroen.sonke@get.omp.eu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 12 11; 115(50):E11586-E11594
Date
12-11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Arctic Regions
Asia
Atlantic Ocean
Environmental monitoring
Europe
Floods
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Models, Theoretical
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Midlatitude anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions and discharge reach the Arctic Ocean (AO) by atmospheric and oceanic transport. Recent studies suggest that Arctic river Hg inputs have been a potentially overlooked source of Hg to the AO. Observations on Hg in Eurasian rivers, which represent 80% of freshwater inputs to the AO, are quasi-inexistent, however, putting firm understanding of the Arctic Hg cycle on hold. Here, we present comprehensive seasonal observations on dissolved Hg (DHg) and particulate Hg (PHg) concentrations and fluxes for two large Eurasian rivers, the Yenisei and the Severnaya Dvina. We find large DHg and PHg fluxes during the spring flood, followed by a second pulse during the fall flood. We observe well-defined water vs. Hg runoff relationships for Eurasian and North American Hg fluxes to the AO and for Canadian Hg fluxes into the larger Hudson Bay area. Extrapolation to pan-Arctic rivers and watersheds gives a total Hg river flux to the AO of 44 ± 4 Mg per year (1s), in agreement with the recent model-based estimates of 16 to 46 Mg per year and Hg/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observation-based estimate of 50 Mg per year. The river Hg budget, together with recent observations on tundra Hg uptake and AO Hg dynamics, provide a consistent view of the Arctic Hg cycle in which continental ecosystems traffic anthropogenic Hg emissions to the AO via rivers, and the AO exports Hg to the atmosphere, to the Atlantic Ocean, and to AO marine sediments.
PubMed ID
30478039 View in PubMed
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European and Russian physician awareness of best management approaches for infections due to antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289803
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 08; 33(8):1467-1472
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Paurus Irani
Tehseen Salimi
Robert Epstein
Megan Leone-Perkins
Ronald Aubert
Mona Khalid
Emma Epstein
J Russell Teagarden
Author Affiliation
a AstraZeneca , Luton, Bedfordshire , UK.
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 08; 33(8):1467-1472
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Europe
Gram-Negative Bacteria - drug effects
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - drug therapy
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Physicians - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
The rapid spread of infections due to antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in Europe and surrounding regions requires a heightened level of awareness among physicians within their practice settings.
We surveyed 800 physicians who treat these infections across France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Russia to assess their awareness of best management approaches.
We found that more than two-thirds do not consider themselves highly aware of best management practices. The respondents are facing these resistant infections as evidenced by the antibiotics they report using and their stated interest in newer agents. Respondents indicated that precious time is lost waiting for culture results, but also said they will need more information about accuracy, use, and costs for adopting rapid molecular testing.
The survey further identified the need for treatment guidelines and clinical decision support tools that can be applied at the bedside.
PubMed ID
28466666 View in PubMed
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Factors Related to Unemployment in Europe. A Cross-Sectional Study from the COURAGE Survey in Finland, Poland and Spain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298280
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 04 11; 15(4):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-11-2018
Author
Matilde Leonardi
Davide Guido
Rui Quintas
Fabiola Silvaggi
Erika Guastafierro
Andrea Martinuzzi
Somnath Chatterji
Seppo Koskinen
Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk
Josep Maria Haro
Maria Cabello
Alberto Raggi
Author Affiliation
Neurological Institute C. Besta IRCCS Foundation, Neurology, Public Health and Disability Unit, 20133 Milan, Italy. matilde.leonardi@istituto-besta.it.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 04 11; 15(4):
Date
04-11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Built Environment
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression
Disabled Persons
Employment
Europe
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Poland
Social Networking
Spain
Surveys and Questionnaires
Unemployment
Abstract
Background: Research addressing the impact of a large number of factors on unemployment is scarce. We aimed to comprehensively identify factors related to unemployment in a sample of persons aged 18-64 from Finland, Poland and Spain. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, factors from different areas were considered: socio-demographic indicators, health habits, chronic conditions, health state markers, vision and hearing indicators, and social networks and built environment scores. Results: Complete data were available for 5003 participants, mean age 48.1 (SD 11.5), 45.4% males. The most important factors connected to unemployment were health status indicators such as physical disability (OR = 2.944), self-rated health (OR = 2.629), inpatient care (OR = 1.980), and difficulties with getting to the toilet (OR = 2.040), while the most relevant factor related to employment were moderate alcohol consumption (OR = 0.732 for non-heavy drinkers; OR = 0.573 for infrequent heavy drinkers), and being married (OR = 0.734), or having been married (OR = 0.584). Other factors that played a significant role included presence of depression (OR = 1.384) and difficulties with near vision (OR = 1.584) and conversation hearing (OR = 1.597). Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of selected factors related to unemployment, and suggest public health indications that could support concrete actions on modifiable factors, such as those aimed to promote physical activity and healthy behaviors, tackling depression or promoting education, in particular for the younger.
PubMed ID
29641485 View in PubMed
Less detail

Heterobasidion Partitivirus 13 Mediates Severe Growth Debilitation and Major Alterations in the Gene Expression of a Fungal Forest Pathogen.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291284
Source
J Virol. 2018 03 01; 92(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-01-2018
Author
Eeva J Vainio
Jaana Jurvansuu
Rafiqul Hyder
Muhammad Kashif
Tuula Piri
Tero Tuomivirta
Anna Poimala
Ping Xu
Salla Mäkelä
Dina Nitisa
Jarkko Hantula
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland eeva.vainio@luke.fi.
Source
J Virol. 2018 03 01; 92(5):
Date
03-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Atropine - metabolism
Basidiomycota - genetics - growth & development - pathogenicity - virology
Biological Control Agents
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Cell Cycle
Diazepam - metabolism
Drug Combinations
Emodin - analogs & derivatives - metabolism
Europe
Forests
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
Genotype
Host-Pathogen Interactions - genetics - physiology
Metabolism
Mitochondria - metabolism
Mycelium - genetics - growth & development - virology
Norway
Phenotype
Phenylpropanolamine - metabolism
Picea - microbiology
Plant Diseases - economics - microbiology
RNA Virus Infections
RNA Viruses - genetics - physiology
RNA, Viral - genetics - isolation & purification
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Triiodothyronine - metabolism
Abstract
The fungal genus Heterobasidion includes some of the most devastating conifer pathogens in the boreal forest region. In this study, we showed that the alphapartitivirus Heterobasidion partitivirus 13 from Heterobasidion annosum (HetPV13-an1) is the main causal agent of severe phenotypic debilitation in the host fungus. Based on RNA sequencing using isogenic virus-infected and cured fungal strains, HetPV13-an1 affected the transcription of 683 genes, of which 60% were downregulated and 40% upregulated. Alterations observed in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest that the virus causes a state of starvation, which is compensated for by alternative synthesis routes. We used dual cultures to transmit HetPV13-an1 into new strains of H. annosum and Heterobasidion parviporum The three strains of H. parviporum that acquired the virus showed noticeable growth reduction on rich culturing medium, while only two of six H. annosum isolates tested showed significant debilitation. Based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, the response toward HetPV13-an1 infection was somewhat different in H. annosum and H. parviporum We assessed the effects of HetPV13-an1 on the wood colonization efficacy of H. parviporum in a field experiment where 46 Norway spruce trees were inoculated with isogenic strains with or without the virus. The virus-infected H. parviporum strain showed considerably less growth within living trees than the isolate without HetPV13-an1, indicating that the virus also causes growth debilitation in natural substrates.IMPORTANCE A biocontrol method restricting the spread of Heterobasidion species would be highly beneficial to forestry, as these fungi are difficult to eradicate from diseased forest stands and cause approximate annual losses of €800 million in Europe. We used virus curing and reintroduction experiments and RNA sequencing to show that the alphapartitivirus HetPV13-an1 affects many basic cellular functions of the white rot wood decay fungus Heterobasidion annosum, which results in aberrant hyphal morphology and a low growth rate. Dual fungal cultures were used to introduce HetPV13-an1 into a new host species, Heterobasidion parviporum, and field experiments confirmed the capability of the virus to reduce the growth of H. parviporum in living spruce wood. Taken together, our results suggest that HetPV13-an1 shows potential for the development of a future biocontrol agent against Heterobasidion fungi.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29237832 View in PubMed
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Hungarian tick-borne encephalitis viruses isolated from a 0.5-ha focus are closely related to Finnish strains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297920
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 07; 9(5):1064-1068
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
László Egyed
Zsuzsanna Rónai
Ádám Dán
Author Affiliation
Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: egyed.laszlo@agrar.mta.hu.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 07; 9(5):1064-1068
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Amino Acid Substitution
Animal Migration
Animals
Birds - virology
Capsid Proteins - genetics
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - genetics - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Europe - epidemiology
Evolution, Molecular
Finland - epidemiology
Genome, Viral
Hungary - epidemiology
Ixodes - virology
Phylogeny
Rodentia - parasitology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Viral Proteins - genetics
Whole Genome Sequencing
Abstract
Four tick-borne encephalitis virus strains were isolated from a small 0.5-ha focus over a six-year-long period (2011-2016) in Hungary. Two strains with identical genomes were isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna two months apart, which shows that the virus had not evolved separately in these tick species. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus revealed that the isolates differed from each other in 4 amino acids and 9 nucleotides. The calculated substitution rates indicated that the speed of genome evolution differs from habitat to habitat, and continuously changes even within the same focus. The amino acid changes affected the capsid, envelope, NS2a and NS5 genes, and one mutation each occurred in the 5' and 3' NCR as well as the premembrane, NS2a and NS5 genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete coding ORF sequences showed that the isolates belong to the European subtype of the virus and are closely related to the Finnish Kumlinge strains, the Bavarian isolate Leila and two isolates of Russian origin, but more distantly related to viruses from the neighbouring Central European countries. These isolates obviously have a common origin and are probably connected by migrating birds. These are the first published complete Hungarian TBEV sequences.
PubMed ID
29655579 View in PubMed
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