Data from 12 different European countries show a rapid increase in HIV antibody positivity among drug users or a high degree of contamination already reached wherever studies have been made. Until 31 December 1986, 698 (18%) of AIDS cases were among drug users, of which 600 (15%) of AIDS cases were solely drug users, and 98 (3%) were in addition homosexual or bisexual. A further increase is expected. Because of the epidemiological importance for transmission to the heterosexual population, this problem has become a focus of attention. Drug abusing prostitutes constitute a major source of infection for the heterosexual population and newborns. The increase in the number of AIDS cases in 1986 among male drug abusers was 98 - that is up 61% compared to previous years; among women, the increase was 56%. The 3 main approaches to solution of this problem, i.e. interdiction of the drug trade, availability of sterile needles, and an education program have not proven as successful as anticipated. Relevant indications of the progress of infection in society can only be obtained by systematic observation of conversion rates in differential subgroups, i.e. drug abusers, newly incarcerated drug abusers, male and female prostitutes who use drugs, and individuals newly reporting for treatment. Separation of HIV antibody positives and negatives in therapeutic communities which are not drug free is recommended for epidemiological purposes in view of the developments to date. Nor should forced segregation of the infected from noninfected be dismissed out of hand.
"The structural change model of the demographic transition developed by Easterlin and others is explored empirically by applying the Brown, Durbin and Evans test of structural change to annual data from the transitions of Sweden, Norway, England and Wales, and Finland. The evidence strongly supports the structural change model over traditional models (based on gradual changes in explanatory variables), indicating a supply response of fertility to declining illness and death during the early stages of transition, and a demand response to the death of children during the latter stages, when families are likely to have achieved desired size."
The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis.
1977 fertility histories of 4100 Norwegian women between ages 18-44 were used to study the innovation pattern of modern contraception in relation to regional and social variables. 84% of women who could have become pregnant during the 4 weeks prior to this survey had used birth control methods. Only 7% of those not desiring a pregnancy failed to use birth control. The IUD was the most frequently used method of contraception (34%), then condom (22%) and the pill (20%). Women from urban areas were more apt to use IUD and the pills than the more traditonal methods preferred by rural women. Higher percentages of women with higher education use contraception, but patterns of use do not differ significantly among social groups. In summarizing changes in the pattern of use during the 1960's and 1970's, researchers found that age at first birth in Norway is now older, while sexual debuts are occuring earlier.
Although hypertension is a well-established coronary risk factor, controlled, randomized hypertension drug trials have failed to show a definite preventive effect on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Possible adverse metabolic effects, particularly on blood lipids, of some commonly used antihypertensive drugs have been investigated. During the Oslo Study on the treatment of mild hypertension, which was not specifically designed to study the effect on lipids, a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in serum triglycerides was observed with a combination of propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide. Therefore, special trials were designed specifically to study the effect of various antihypertensive drugs on blood lipids. Propranolol reduced serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13 percent) and the cholesterol ratio [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol:(low-density lipoprotein cholesterol plus very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol)] by 15 percent and increased total serum triglycerides by 24 percent. Prazosin significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced total serum cholesterol, (9 percent) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol plus very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (10 percent), and total triglycerides (16 percent), whereas the cholesterol ratio increased by 7 percent. The reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with propranolol plus prazosin was less than that with propranolol alone. Pindolol (with a high sympathomimetic activity) did not significantly change total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol plus very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or total triglycerides. Prazosin plus pindolol reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol plus very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The observed reductions in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the cholesterol ratio with oxprenolol were 11.5 percent and 13.7 percent, respectively, and with atenolol 16.7 percent and 19.2 percent, respectively, whereas total serum triglycerides were increased by 14.9 percent with oxprenolol and 17.9 percent with atenolol. Data provided by other European groups comparing the effect of antihypertensive treatment on lipid metabolism are also reviewed.
A study of the admissions to the University of Bergen, Norway, hospital for ectopic pregnancy during the 1965-78 period was conducted. A retrospective study of patients' records for cases occurring during 1965-71 was made. For the later period, the study was made prospectively by registering every new patient and emphasizing analysis of etiological and clinical factors. Of the 450 ectopic pregnancies occurring during this period, 105 had an IUD in place. The incidence of ectopic pregnancies in women with IUDs increased in the last 5 years. Lippes loop was the IUD most often involved early in the study and the Copper T and Copper 7 were more prevalent later on, reflecting device popularity. The IUD group had significantly fewer etiological findings for ectopic pregnancy than the non-IUD group. In other words, there were many less incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease, other pelvic adhesions, and earlier spontaneous abortions in the IUD group than in the non-IUD group. Patients with an IUD in place tended to register symptoms earlier in the ectopic pregnancy but to be in worse condition at the time of admission to the hospital. Localization of the ectopic pregnancy is tabulated. There was a statistically significant greater incidence of ovarian pregnancies among the IUD women, which is possibly explained by the fact that the antifertility effect of the IUD is strongest in the endometrial cavity, weaker in the tube, and absent beyond the tube.
"The association between divorce risks in first marriage and the timing of the first birth is inspected in a life-table analysis of registered birth and marriage histories from Norway. One of the main conclusions is that the high propensity to divorce among women who have had a premarital birth is not confined to those who marry someone other than the father of their child. Also, women who have had a premarital child with their husband, run a much higher risk of marital breakup than do those who had their first baby in wedlock....It is argued that couples who postpone childbearing beyond two years of marriage may have particularly low divorce rates." (SUMMARY IN FRE)
As of January 1987, the family allowance payable in Norway with respect to the first child was increased from NKr 5448 to NKr 6180 and with respect to the fifth child from NKr 8424 to NKr 9096. As of January 1988, these allowances increased to NKr 7188 and NKr 10104, respectively.
As of 1987, the period of payment of regular maternity benefits in Norway was increased from 18 to 20 weeks, and the period of payment of benefits for adoption was increased from 12 to 14 weeks. The scope of payment of the adoption benefit was also enlarged, and the benefit is now payable for the adoption with respect to children up to 15 years of age and is increased by 10 days for each additional child adopted. In 1988, the period of payment of regular maternity benefits was increased to 22 weeks and of adoption benefits to 17 weeks.