OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
The authors report the first results of a new 6-F symmetrically designed permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, the Cordis TrapEase, evaluated in a multicenter prospective study with 6-months of follow-up.
A total of 65 patients (29 men, 36 women) who ranged in age from 37 to 96 years (mean age, 68 years) and who were at high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) were enrolled in 12 centers in Europe and Canada. The study was approved by the institutional review boards at all centers. Study objectives were to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability, and caval occlusion. Indications for filter placement were deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation in 37 patients, and complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation in 28 patients. Follow-up included clinical examination, plain film, Doppler ultrasound, CT scan, and nuclear medicine.
The analysis of the data revealed a technical success of 95.4% (three filter-system related implantations not at the intended site, no events of filter tilting) and a clinical success of 100% at 6 months (no cases of symptomatic PE), the study primary endpoint. There were no cases (0%) of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study period, there were two cases of filter thrombosis: one case of early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital, and one case of nonsymptomatic filter thrombosis detected at 1-month follow-up, with spontaneous recanalization at 3 months. In the latter patient, some residual thrombus was still detected at 6 months. Of the study population of 65 patients, there were 23 deaths. These deaths were not related to the device or the implantation procedure but to the underlying disease process.
This study demonstrates the new nitinol permanent IVC filter to be a safe and an effective device, with a low overall complication rate, for use in patients with thromboembolic disease at high risk of PE.
Active school transport (AST) is a source of daily physical activity uptake. However, AST seems to have decreased worldwide over recent decades. We aimed to examine recent trends in AST and associations with gender, age, family affluence, and time to school, using data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 in the Czech Republic, Norway, Scotland, and Wales. Data from 88,212 students (11, 13 and 15 years old) revealed stable patterns of AST from 2006 to 2018, apart from a decrease in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2010. For survey waves combined, walking to and from school was most common in the Czech Republic (55%) and least common in Wales (30%). Cycling was only common in Norway (22%). AST differed by gender (Scotland and Wales), by age (Norway), and by family affluence (everywhere but Norway). In the Czech Republic, family affluence was associated with change over time in AST, and the effect of travel time on AST was stronger. The findings indicate that the decrease in AST could be levelling off in the countries considered here. Differential associations with sociodemographic factors and travel time should be considered in the development of strategies for AST.
A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
The 24th European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 7-11 October 2015. It has become Europe's biggest meeting of its kind with roughly 10,000 participants, approximately 3000 abstracts and about 180 exhibitors from all over the world. The organizers offer a venue for the latest cutting edge research and newest developments. Thus, their goal is to foster progress in clinical care and promote scientific excellence related to dermatovenereology for the benefit of patients with skin diseases.