A random sample of 4,807 men and women, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, who lived in the western part of Copenhagen County, was drawn from the National Central Person Registry. A total of 226 subjects who were not of Danish origin were omitted. The response rate was 78.8% (3,608/4,581). Each person had his or her gallbladder examined by ultrasonography. The examinations took place between November 1982 and February 1984. The overall prevalence of gallstone disease (cases with stones and cholecystectomized cases) in males aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years was 1.8%, 1.5%, 6.7%, and 12.9%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence in females was 4.8%, 6.1%, 14.4%, and 22.4%, respectively. Differences according to sex were significant in all age groups. Differences between the 40- and 50-year and 50- and 60-year age groups were significant in both sexes. Among subjects with gallstone disease, the disease was unknown to the proband in the majority of males and in the 30-year-old females, but only in half of the women aged 40, 50, and 60 years. The prevalence of clinically diagnosed gallstones was not significantly different between respondents and nonrespondents.
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information.
We ascertained AF incidence in 18 556 Whites and African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC, n=10 675), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, n = 5043), and Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n = 2838), followed for 5 years (prediction horizon). We added BNP (ARIC/CHS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; FHS: BNP), CRP, or both to a previously reported AF risk score, and assessed model calibration and predictive ability [C-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI)]. We replicated models in two independent European cohorts: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (AGES), n = 4467; Rotterdam Study (RS), n = 3203. B-type natriuretic peptide and CRP were significantly associated with AF incidence (n = 1186): hazard ratio per 1-SD ln-transformed biomarker 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56-1.76], P
Cites: J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Apr;2(2):e00010223537808
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African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (
Having qualitatively investigated, both the temporal curves of alcoholic beverage consumption trends and the introduction of preventive alcohol policy measures in six European countries during the 1960s-2000s, drinking control policy measures often appeared to operate as co-factors of change, while during some periods of time they were not even present even if effective consumption changes were occurring. Study limitations are noted.
A 37 m deep ice core representing 1957-2009 and snow from 2009 to 2010 were collected on the Lomonosovfonna glacier, Svalbard (78.82° N; 17.43° E) and analyzed for 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Congener profiles in all samples showed the prevalence of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls, dominated in all samples by PCB-44, PCB-52, PCB-70 + PCB-74, PCB-87 + PCB-97, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, and PCB-110. The ?PCB flux varied over time, but the peak flux, ~19 pg cm(-2) year(-1) from 1957 to 1966, recurred in 1974-1983, 1998-2009, and 2009-2010. The minimum was 5.75 pg cm(-2) year(-1) in 1989-1998, following a 15 year decline. Peak ?PCB fluxes here are lower than measured in the Canadian Arctic. The analysis of all 209 congeners revealed that PCB-11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) was present in all samples, representing 0.9-4.5% of ?PCB. PCB-11 was not produced in a commercial PCB product, and its source to the Arctic has not been well-characterized; however, our results confirm that the sources to Lomonosovfonna have been active since 1957. The higher fluxes of ?PCB correspond to periods when average 5 day air mass back trajectories have a frequency of 8-10% and reach 60° N or beyond over northern Europe and western Russia or the North Sea into the U.K.
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ~24,000-year-old Siberian. By ~6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ~3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
Comment In: Nature. 2015 Jun 11;522(7555):164-526062506
In this study latent heat flux (?E) measurements made at 65 boreal and arctic eddy-covariance (EC) sites were analyses by using the Penman-Monteith equation. Sites were stratified into nine different ecosystem types: harvested and burnt forest areas, pine forests, spruce or fir forests, Douglas-fir forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, larch forests, wetlands, tundra and natural grasslands. The Penman-Monteith equation was calibrated with variable surface resistances against half-hourly eddy-covariance data and clear differences between ecosystem types were observed. Based on the modeled behavior of surface and aerodynamic resistances, surface resistance tightly control ?E in most mature forests, while it had less importance in ecosystems having shorter vegetation like young or recently harvested forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra. The parameters of the Penman-Monteith equation were clearly different for winter and summer conditions, indicating that phenological effects on surface resistance are important. We also compared the simulated ?E of different ecosystem types under meteorological conditions at one site. Values of ?E varied between 15% and 38% of the net radiation in the simulations with mean ecosystem parameters. In general, the simulations suggest that ?E is higher from forested ecosystems than from grasslands, wetlands or tundra-type ecosystems. Forests showed usually a tighter stomatal control of ?E as indicated by a pronounced sensitivity of surface resistance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Nevertheless, the surface resistance of forests was lower than for open vegetation types including wetlands. Tundra and wetlands had higher surface resistances, which were less sensitive to vapor pressure deficits. The results indicate that the variation in surface resistance within and between different vegetation types might play a significant role in energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. These results suggest the need to take into account vegetation type and phenology in energy exchange modeling.
A comparative analysis of Russian and European legislation concerning to the waste management has been performed. There were revealed principal differences in Russian and European legislation in methodology of the waste classification. In Europe, there is no methodology for breaking up waste into hazard classes, and for the denomination of the danger there are used hazard lists which fail to give information about the extent of their danger. Medical waste in the European legislation are not selected into the separate category as being included in terms of articles and lists in the annexes to the directives or other legal acts. There are considered requirements of the Russian and European legislation in the area of the landfill waste burial. In the frameworks of the proposals for the implementation of international experience in the waste management there was drafted the project of Sanitary rules on hygiene requirements to the arrangement and the contents of landfills for residential solid waste, which includes requirements concerning not only residential solid waste, but also medical waste.