Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
Surveys of dental health among Aboriginal children in Canada, using scales such as the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) score, indicate that Aboriginal children have 2 to 3 times poorer oral health compared with other populations. A remote First Nations community approached requested assistance in addressing the health of their children. The objective was to work with the community to improve oral health and knowledge among school children. The hypothesis formulated was that after 3 years of the program there would be a significant decrease in dmft/DMFT (primary/permanent) score.
This was a cross-sectional study of all school-aged children in a small, remote First Nations community. Pre- and post- intervention evaluation of oral health was conducted by a dentist not involved in the study. The intervention consisted of a school-based program with daily brush-ins, fluoride application, educational presentations, and a recognition/incentive scheme.
Twenty-six children were assessed prior to the intervention, representing 45% of the 58 children then in the community. All 40 children in the community were assessed following the intervention. Prior to the intervention, 8% of children were cavity free. Following 3 years of the intervention, 32% were cavity free. Among the 13 children assessed both pre- and post-intervention, dmft/DMFT score improved significantly (p
A total of 1075 Russians from the Russian part of Karelia were genotyped at high-resolution for the human leukocyte antigen loci HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 using next generation sequencing methods. The haplotypic and allelic profiles as well as Hardy-Weinberg proportions of this population sample were evaluated. As the most frequent 6-locus haplotype, A*03:01?g?~?B*07:02?g?~?C*07:02?g?~?DRB1*15:01?g?~?DQB1*06:02?g?~?DPB1*04:01?g was identified with an estimated frequency of 3.5%. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name "Russia Karelia" and the identifier AFN3430.
A new restless legs syndrome locus on chromosome 14 recently has been reported in one family of Italian origin. Our study aimed to replicate this finding and determine the importance of this locus in the French Canadian population. Markers spanning the region were genotyped in 14 large families and linkage assessed using two-point and multipoint logarithm of odds scores. Possible linkage to this locus was found in one of our kindreds providing support for the existence of this locus and indicating that this locus may be responsible for a small fraction of French Canadian restless legs syndrome.
When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; the Northern Navajo Medical Center, Shiprock, New Mexico; the Mid-Columbia Medical Center, The Dalles, Oregon; the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas; the Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage, Alaska; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi; the Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC.
Since 1970, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on American Indian and Alaska Native Women's Health has partnered with the Indian Health Service and health care facilities serving Native American women to improve quality of care in both rural and urban settings. Needs assessments have included formal surveys, expert panels, consensus conferences, and onsite program reviews. Improved care has been achieved through continuing professional education, recruitment of volunteer obstetrician-gynecologists, advocacy, and close collaboration at the local and national levels. The inclusive and multifaceted approach of this program should provide an effective model for collaborations between specialty societies and health care professionals providing primary care services that can reduce health disparities in underserved populations.