Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Social capital research has recognized the relevance of occupational network contacts for individuals' life chances and status attainment, and found distinct associations dependent on ethnic background. A still fairly unexplored area is the health implications of occupational networks. The current approach thus seeks to study the relationship between access to occupational social capital and depressive symptoms in early adulthood, and to examine whether the associations differ between persons with native Swedish parents and those with parents born in Iran and the former Yugoslavia. The two-wave panel comprised 19- and 23-year-old Swedish citizens whose parents were born in either Sweden, Iran or the former Yugoslavia. The composition of respondents' occupational networks contacts was measured with a so-called position generator. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a two-item depression screener. A population-averaged model was used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and access to occupational contact networks. Similar levels of depressive symptoms in respondents with parents born in Sweden and Yugoslavia were contrasted by a notably higher prevalence of these conditions in those with an Iranian background. After socioeconomic conditions were adjusted for, regression analysis showed that the propensity for depressive symptoms in women with an Iranian background increased with a higher number of manual class contacts, and decreased for men and women with Iranian parents with a higher number of prestigious occupational connections. The respective associations in persons with native Swedish parents and parents from the former Yugoslavia are partly reversed. Access to occupational contact networks, but also perceived ethnic identity, explained a large portion of the ethnic variation in depression. Mainly the group with an Iranian background seems to benefit from prestigious occupational contacts. Among those with an Iranian background, social status concerns and expected marginalization in manual class occupations may have contributed to their propensity for depressive symptoms.
This study of 689 secondary school students (13-16 years of age) in Sweden investigates the association between alcohol habits, the availability of alcohol and age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnic origin and family structure. Data were obtained by anonymous questionnaires in 1991. The availability of alcohol increased from the seventh grade to the ninth as did the proportion of alcohol consumers and students with regular alcohol consumption. Boys in the seventh and eighth grades showed somewhat more advanced alcohol habits than girls, but in the ninth grade the opposite was seen. Students with more advanced alcohol habits and a higher availability of alcohol more often belonged to a lower socioeconomic strata and they lived more often with a single parent. Students of foreign background drank alcohol (especially wine) more regularly. An association was also found between the parents' liberal attitude toward offering alcohol at home and frequent intoxication and the students' experience of illicitly produced liquor, especially among the youngest students. In spite of the Swedish alcohol policy the availability of alcohol is rather high among young people. Special attention in alcohol preventive work should be paid to girls, young people living with one parent, young people in lower socioeconomic groups and young people of foreign origin.
The study aimed to determine rates and types of patient restraint, and their relationship to age, gender and immigrant background. The study retrospectively examined routinely collected data and data from restraint protocols in a department of acute psychiatry over a 2-year period. Each patient is only counted once in this period, controlling for readmission. Of 960 admitted patients, 14% were exposed to the use of restraints. The rate was significantly higher among patients with immigrant background, especially in the younger age groups. Most commonly used were mechanical restraint alone for native-born patients and a combination of mechanical and pharmacological restraints for patients with immigrant background. The use of restraints decreased when patients reached 60 years. Both patients' age and immigrant background seem to have an impact on the use of restraint.
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children living in recent immigrant families had lower levels of emotional-behavioral problems and higher levels of school performance. Living in a neighborhood characterized with higher concentration of immigrants was associated with lower levels of emotional-behavioral problems among children living in immigrant families; the reverse was true for children living in nonimmigrant families. These differences are partially explained by family process variables. The implications of these findings for future research and policy are discussed.
This article reviews cultural variations in the clinical presentation of depression and anxiety. Culture-specific symptoms may lead to underrecognition or misidentification of psychological distress. Contrary to the claim that non-Westerners are prone to somatize their distress, recent research confirms that somatization is ubiquitous. Somatic symptoms serve as cultural idioms of distress in many ethnocultural groups and, if misinterpreted by the clinician, may lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Clinicians must learn to decode the meaning of somatic and dissociative symptoms, which are not simply indices of disease or disorder but part of a language of distress with interpersonal and wider social meanings. Implications of these findings for the recognition and treatment of depressive disorders among culturally diverse populations in primary care and mental health settings are discussed.
Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women.
In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP.
Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self.
The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.
The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of and risk factors for depressive disorder in a random sample of 342 Ethiopian immigrants and refugees in Toronto. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview questionnaire was used to measure depression. The results suggested a lifetime prevalence of depression among Ethiopian immigrants and refugees of 9.8%, which was slightly higher than the lifetime prevalence rate in the Ontario population (7.3%). However, the rate among Ethiopian immigrants and refugees was approximately three times higher than the rate estimated for Southern Ethiopia (3.2%). The data confirmed the significance of known risk factors for depression in immigrants, including younger age, experiences of premigration trauma, refugee camp internment, and postmigration stressful events. The implication of the overall finding is that there is a need to develop mental health intervention programs, particularly for people who have experienced premigration trauma, refugee camp internment, and postmigration stresses.