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Activity of disaccharidases in arctic populations: evolutionary aspects disaccharidases in arctic populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4724
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):473-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Andrew Kozlov
Galina Vershubsky
Svetlana Borinskaya
Maria Sokolova
Vladislav Nuvano
Author Affiliation
Institute of Developmental Physiology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia. aikozlov@narod.ru
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):473-6
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Age Factors
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Blood glucose
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors - enzymology - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Diet
Disaccharidases - deficiency - metabolism
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Evolution
Humans
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Disorders of dietary sugar assimilation occur more often among native people of the Arctic then in temperate climate inhabitants.It is hypothesized that the limited variety of natural exogenous sugars in the Arctic, and their low content in the traditional diets of native northerners in accordance with a "protein-lipid" type of metabolism weakened selection, favoring diversity of disaccharidase enzymes.
PubMed ID
16079601 View in PubMed
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Acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department: the role of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183689
Source
Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):803-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Edwin D Boudreaux
Stephen D Emond
Sunday Clark
Carlos A Camargo
Author Affiliation
Department of Emergency Medicine, Cooper Hospital, One Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103-1489, USA. boudreaux-edwin@cooperhealth.edu
Source
Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):803-12
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Asthma - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
To investigate racial/ethnic differences in acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department (ED), and to determine whether observed differences are attributable to socioeconomic status (SES).
Prospective cohort studies performed during 1996 to 1998 by the Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration. Using a standardized protocol, researchers provided 24-h coverage for a median duration of 2 weeks per year. Adults with acute asthma were interviewed in the ED and by telephone 2 weeks after hospital discharge.
Sixty-four North American EDs.
A total of 1,847 patients were enrolled into the study. Black and Hispanic asthma patients had a history of more hospitalizations than did whites (ever-hospitalized patients: black, 66%; Hispanic, 63%; white, 54%; p
PubMed ID
12970001 View in PubMed
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Adult obesity prevalence in Canada and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134392
Source
NCHS Data Brief. 2011 Mar;(56):1-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Margot Shields
Margaret D Carroll
Cynthia L Ogden
Author Affiliation
Statistics Canada, Health Analysis Division.
Source
NCHS Data Brief. 2011 Mar;(56):1-8
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Continental Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology
Prevalence
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Obesity is a public health challenge throughout the world. Ongoing monitoring of trends in obesity is important to assess interventions aimed at preventing or reducing the burden of obesity. Since the 1960s, measured height and weight have been collected in the United States as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In Canada, data on measured height and weight have been collected from nationally representative samples of the population less regularly. This changed in 2007 with the launch of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), the scope and purpose of which are similar to those of NHANES. The objective of this report is to compare estimates of the prevalence of obesity between Canadian and American adults.
PubMed ID
21592419 View in PubMed
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Adult tobacco use among racial and ethnic groups living in the United States, 2002-2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92981
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2008 Jul;5(3):A78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Caraballo Ralph S
Yee Sue Lin
Gfroerer Joe
Mirza Sara A
Author Affiliation
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop K-50, 4770 Buford Hwy, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. rfc8@cdc.gov
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2008 Jul;5(3):A78
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Smoking - ethnology
Tobacco Use Disorder - ethnology
Tobacco, Smokeless
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: U.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002-2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1) use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes) during the 30 days before each survey and 2) cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.
PubMed ID
18558028 View in PubMed
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The Ahalaya case-management program for HIV-infected American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians: quantitative and qualitative evaluation of impacts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2999
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2000;9(2):36-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
P D Bouey
B E Druan
Author Affiliation
The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center, 436 14th Street, Suite 1020, Oakland, CA 94612, USA. Paulbouey@nnaapc.org
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2000;9(2):36-52
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Attitude to Health
Case Management - organization & administration
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
HIV Infections - ethnology - psychology - therapy
Hawaii - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Treatment Outcome
United States - epidemiology
United States Indian Health Service - standards
Abstract
The Ahalaya case management model was designed to provide culturally sensitive services to HIV-positive American Indians (AI), Alaska Natives (AN), and Native Hawaiians (NH). This program started in 1991 and expanded across the country in 1994. The evaluation plan included a client satisfaction survey, along with focus groups and key informant interviews. Of the 389 active clients enrolled, 132 responded to the anonymous 35-item questionnaire. Responses were favorable regarding benefits of the programs. Self-reported quality of life changes after enrollment also were significantly improved (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test: T=6.87, p=.000; n=131). Qualitative data highlighted other important issues. Social relationships-with staff, community, and family-were critical to client welfare, as a source of both strength and fear. While AI/AN/NH case management programs have been shown effective, services need to expand, and they have to facilitate resolutions to problems in clients social relationships.
PubMed ID
11279557 View in PubMed
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AIDS among racial/ethnic minorities--United States, 1993.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3029
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994 Sep 9;43(35):644-7, 653-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-9-1994
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994 Sep 9;43(35):644-7, 653-5
Date
Sep-9-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - ethnology
Adolescent
Adult
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Minority Groups - statistics & numerical data
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
In 1993, local, state, and territorial health departments reported to CDC 58,538 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among racial/ethnic minorities (Table 1). A total of 38,544 (66%) cases were reported among blacks, 18,888 (32%) among Hispanics, 767 (1%) among Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 339 (1%) among American Indians/Alaskan Natives. These cases represented 55% of the 106,949 AIDS cases reported in the United States in 1993. Rates of AIDS and modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure varied substantially both among and within minority populations. This report describes these differences and summarizes the epidemiologic characteristics of AIDS cases reported among racial/ethnic minorities during 1993.
PubMed ID
8072475 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and drug use among internationally adopted adolescents: Results from a Norwegian population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295096
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018; 88(2):226-235
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Kristin Gärtner Askeland
Børge Sivertsen
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Annette M La Greca
Grethe S Tell
Leif Edvard Aarø
Mari Hysing
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018; 88(2):226-235
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adoption - ethnology
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - ethnology
Depression - ethnology
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Internationality
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Self Report
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - ethnology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
PubMed ID
28253017 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption in Estonia and Finland: Finbalt survey 1994-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143470
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:261
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Kersti Pärna
Kaja Rahu
Satu Helakorpi
Mare Tekkel
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Estonia. kersti.parna@ut.ee
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:261
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - trends
Cross-Sectional Studies
Estonia - epidemiology
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Alcohol consumption has been regarded as an important contributor to the high premature mortality rates. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview and comparison of alcohol consumption and its socio-demographic determinants among adults in Estonia and Finland.
The study was based on a 25-64-year-old subsample of nationally representative postal cross-sectional surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 10,340) and Finland (n = 19,672) during 1994-2006. Abstinence, frequency, and the amount of alcohol consumed were examined. Logistic regression models were used to test the socio-demographic differences in alcohol consumption at least once a week. The effect of socio-demographic factors on pure alcohol consumed per week was calculated using linear regression.
The proportion of abstainers was 1.5 times higher among women than men in both countries. Throughout the study period, the amount of alcohol consumed per week increased for both genders in Estonia and for women in Finland, but was stable for men in Finland. In the final study year, medium risk amount of alcohol consumed per week was nearly 1.5 times higher among men in Estonia than in Finland, but about half that among women in Estonia than in Finland. Compared to ethnic majority in Estonia, alcohol consumption at least once a week was lower among men, but amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was higher among women of ethnic minority. In Finland, alcohol consumption at least once a week was more prevalent among women of ethnic minority, but the amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was lower for both gender groups of ethnic minority. Compared to married/cohabiting respondents, alcohol consumption at least once a week was less pronounced among single respondents in Finland, divorced or separated women in both countries, and widowed respondents in Estonia. Greater amount of alcohol consumed per week was more prevalent among single and divorced or separated respondents in Finland, but only among divorced or separated men in Estonia. Frequency of alcohol consumption was lower among less educated than higher educated respondents in Finland, but not in Estonia. The amount of consumed alcohol per week was higher among less educated men in Estonia, but lower among women with basic education in Finland.
Alcohol consumption has increased in Estonia and Finland. National alcohol policies should reflect findings of alcohol epidemiology in order to introduce measures that will reduce alcohol related harm in the population effectively.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20482852 View in PubMed
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Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276628
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E177
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Scott E Hadland
Ziming Xuan
Jason G Blanchette
Timothy C Heeren
Monica H Swahn
Timothy S Naimi
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E177
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Binge Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Cluster analysis
Delphi Technique
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Policy
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Inuits - ethnology
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - epidemiology - mortality
Male
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
State Government
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states' alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates.
We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0-100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization.
Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84-0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions.
Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26469950 View in PubMed
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The ambiguity of ethnicity as risk factor of vitamin D deficiency--a case study of Danish vitamin D policy documents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133691
Source
Health Policy. 2011 Sep;102(1):56-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Anna Mygind
Janine Morgall Traulsen
Lotte Stig Nørgaard
Paul Bissell
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. am@farma.ku.dk
Source
Health Policy. 2011 Sep;102(1):56-63
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Culture
Denmark - epidemiology
Emigrants and Immigrants
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Policy
Humans
Islam
Male
Minority Groups - statistics & numerical data
Policy Making
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Skin pigmentation
Vitamin D Deficiency - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Abstract
To explore how ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed in Danish policy documents (current as of April 2009), regarding vitamin D supplementation.
Ten policy documents were analysed through content analysis, focusing on definitions and explanations of ethnic minorities being at risk of vitamin D deficiency. This formed the basis for an analysis of constructions of ethnic minorities at risk which was undertaken using the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory as an organising framework.
The analysis showed a high degree of interpretative flexibility regarding how ethnic minorities are constructed as a risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The ten documents analysed revealed eight different constructions of the ethnic minorities groups at risk. A low degree of interpretative flexibility was found regarding the importance of skin colour and skin covering. Major disagreements were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and use of an evolutionary explanation for the increased risk.
Ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed very differently in Danish policies current as of April 2009. A more precise definition of ethnic minorities in policies and research may be helpful in seeking to identify which ethnic minorities are and are not at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
PubMed ID
21676481 View in PubMed
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293 records – page 1 of 30.