Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is seen with high frequency in the province of Québec, Canada. A large deletion (> 10 kb) of the 5'-end of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene is the major mutation of the LDL-R in FH subjects in Québec (approximately 60% of FH subjects). No mRNA is produced from the allele bearing the mutation, and cellular cholesterol obtained by receptor-mediated endocytosis is under the control of the non-deletion allele. We have previously reported that some patients with the 10-kb deletion (approximately 9%) fail to respond to the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) inhibitor class of medications. We studied mRNA levels of the LDL-R and HMG CoA reductase genes in response to the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in cultured human skin fibroblasts and we devised an in vitro model to study the response to drug therapy in subjects with FH. We determined mRNA levels by RNase protection assay in skin fibroblasts obtained from controls (n = 3) and FH subjects with the > 10-kb deletion (responders, n = 3; non responders, n = 3; to drug therapy). We measured 125I-LDL binding on skin fibroblasts grown in the presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum with or without 1 microM lovastatin, using 10 micrograms/mL of 125I-LDL protein. Control subjects exhibited coordinate regulation of the LDL-R and HMG CoA reductase genes in response to lovastatin, 0.1-25 microM, for 0-24 h. Correlation coefficients between mRNA levels of both genes were > 0.9 in controls and FH subjects. However, by linear regression analysis, the corresponding slopes for the correlation between both genes were 0.98 (controls), 3.36 and 3.63 (FH responders and non-responders), indicating a pattern of dissociated but still coordinate regulation in FH subjects. The magnitude of increase of mRNA levels of the LDL-R gene was approximately five-fold over LPDS in controls, two-fold in FH responders and two-fold in non-responders. Binding studies using 125I-LDL reveal that a control subject and all responders had a 2-2.5-fold increase in binding to cell surface receptors but two out of three FH non-responders showed no increase in binding in response to 1 microM lovastatin. The LDL-R and HMG CoA reductase genes are expressed in coordinate regulation in fibroblasts from subjects with FH due to the > 10-kb deletion, but with a proportionately greater up-regulation of the HMG CoA reductase gene. Some subjects, with FH caused by the > 10-kb deletion of the LDL-R gene, who fail to respond to HMG CoA reductase inhibitors have abnormal LDL receptor binding activity at the cell surface in response to lovastatin in vitro.
On a sample of 1240 persons from Bashkortostan, including Russian, Bashkirs and Tatars, the analysis of allele and genotype frequencies distribution of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism -163C>A was performed by PCR-RFLP in view of belonging to a particular age cohort. In Russian and Bashkirs ethnic groups we observed age-dependent decrease of CYP1A2*C allele and CYP1A2*CI*C genotype frequencies (in Russian statistically significant for allele and genotype, the Bashkirs--only for allele) and a statistically significant increase of CYP1A2*A allele and CYP1A2*A/*A genotype frequencies. The set reduction in the frequency of the wild allele CYP1A2*C and increasing the frequency of the mutant allele CYP1A2*A with age may be due to greater survival of persons who are carriers of that allelic variants of CYP1A2 gene, providing a more efficient metabolism of xenobiotics.
The main demographic parameters of the population of South Altaians from the Mendur-Sokkon village, Ust'-Kanskii raion, Altai Republic, were studied. This population was classified as a growing one because the population's reproductive size was large (37%), the prereproductive part constituted the majority of the population (52%), and the average number of surviving children per spouse was 2.6. The population studied began to mix with other ethnic groups (mostly Russians and Kazakhs) only recently; therefore, the proportion of interethnic hybrids was only 5%. The tribal structure of the Mendur-Sokkon population was typical of all South Altaians and characterized by stringent observance of exogamous regulations. An ethnically pure core was preserved in the population. The degree of endogamy was 0.36; however, the population mostly exchanged marriage migrants within the Ust'-Kanskii raion. A study of postreproductive females revealed that the average number of surviving children and pregnancies per female was 4.9 and 5.3, respectively; these values were lower than those in indigenous northern Siberian populations studied earlier. The high value of the Crow's index of total selection (Itot = 0.63) was mainly accounted for by the differential fecundity component, I(f) = 0.40, whereas the prereproductive mortality component (Im = 0.16) was considerably lower than in northern Siberian populations (Nganasans, Forest and Tundra Nentsi, Evens, Asian Eskimos, etc.) and closer to the values characteristic of urban human populations.
We studied the relationship of D2 and D1 receptor gene polymorphisms and alcoholism in male Finnish alcoholics and assessed male controls. Seventy alcoholics entering a detoxification programme and 50 control individuals were recruited. Forty-three per cent of the alcoholic patients, but only 22% of controls, had the D2 receptor gene TaqI A restriction fragment length polymorphism A1 allele. The frequency of the A1 allele was significantly higher in alcoholics (p = 0.039). In comparison, no association between alcoholism and the D1 receptor gene EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphism alleles was found. A logistic regression analysis of the alcoholic population failed to support the idea that the presence of the A1 allele would be linked to estimates of alcohol dependence severity rated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire or the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. In conclusion, allelic association between the D2 but not D1 receptor gene and alcoholism in a genetically relatively homogenous population of male Finns was found. The results are in agreement with the view that the D2 receptor locus is involved in genetic susceptibility to alcoholism but does not give support to a special association of severe alcohol dependence and the A1 allele of the D2 receptor gene.
Chuvash polycythemia results from a homozygous 598C>T mutation in exon 3 of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. This disrupts the normoxia pathway for degrading hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha causing altered expression of HIF-1 and HIF-2 inducible genes. As hypoxia induces expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesized that there might be an elevation of Th1 cytokines in the setting of Chuvash polycythemia. We analyzed plasma concentrations of Th1 (interleukins-2 and 12, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and Th2 cytokines (interleukins-4, 5, 10, and 13) using the Bio-Plex multiplex suspension array system in 34 VHL598C>T homozygotes and 32 VHL wild-type participants from Chuvashia. Concentrations of all the Th1 and Th2 cytokines measured were elevated in the VHL598C>T homozygotes compared with the control wild-type participants, but the ratios of Th1 to Th2 cytokines did not differ by genotype. In parallel, peripheral blood concentrations of CD4 positive T-helper cells and CD4/CD8 ratio were lower in the VHL598C>T homozygotes. In conclusion, the up-regulated hypoxic response in Chuvash polycythemia is associated with increased plasma products of both the Th1 and Th2 pathways, but the balance between the two pathways seems to be preserved.
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 May;37(5):768-7415870630
Cites: Genes Dev. 2000 Aug 15;14(16):1983-9110950862
Cites: BMC Pulm Med. 2005;5:815978129
Cites: Exp Physiol. 2005 Nov;90(6):791-716157658
Cites: Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;66(5):2600-716510578
Alu insertions provide useful markers for the study of inter-population affinities and historical processes, but data on these systems are not numerous in Native Americans and related populations.
The study aimed to answer the following questions: (a) do the population relationships found agree with ethnic, historical and geographical data? and (b) what can heterozygote levels and associated results inform us about the events that led to the colonization of the New World?
Twelve Alu insertion polymorphisms were studied in 330 individuals belonging to South American Native, Siberian and Mongolian populations. These data were integrated with those from 526 persons, to ascertain the relationships between Asian, Northern Arctic and Amerindian populations.
A decreasing trend concerning heterozygosities and amount of gene flow was observed in the three sets, in the order indicated above. Most results indicated the validity of these subdivisions. However, no clear structure could be observed within South American Natives, indicating the importance of dispersive (genetic drift, founder effects) factors in their differentiation.
The answers to the questions are: (a) yes; and (b) an initial moderate bottleneck, intensified by more recent historical events (isolation and inbreeding), can explain the current Amerindian pattern of diversity.
The distribution and frequency of the CFTR gene mutations vary considerably between countries and ethnic groups. Russians are an East Slavic ethnic groups are native to Eastern Europe. Russians, the most numerous people of the Russian Federation (RF), make about 80% of the population. The aim is to reveal the molecular causes of CF in ethnic Russian patients as comprehensively as possible. The analysis of most common CFTR mutations utilized for CF diagnosis in multiethnic RF population accounts for about 83% of all CF-causing mutations in 1384 ethnic Russian patients. Variants c.1521_1523delCTT (F508del), c.54-5940_273+10250del21kb (CFTRdele2,3), c.2012delT (2143delT), c.2052_2053insA (2184insA), and c.3691delT (3821delT) are most typical for CF patients of Russian origin. DNA of 154 CF patients, Russian by origin, in whom at least one mutant allele was not previously identified (164 CF alleles), was analyzed by Sanger sequencing followed by the multiplex ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method. In addition to the 29 variants identified during the previous test for common mutations, 91 pathogenic CFTR variants were also revealed: 29 missense, 19 nonsense, 14 frame shift in/del, 17 splicing, 1 in frame ins, and 11 copy number variations (CNV). Each of the 61 variants was revealed once, and 17 twice. Each of the variants c.1209G>C (E403D), c.2128A>T (K710X), c.3883delA (4015delA), and c.3884_3885insT (4016insT) were detected for three, c.1766+1G>A (1898+1G>A) and c.2834C>T (S945L) for four, c.1766+1G>C (1898+1G>C) and c.(743+1_744-1)_(1584+1_1585-1)dup (CFTRdup6b-10) for five, c.2353C>T (R785X) and c.4004T>C (L1335P) for six, c.3929G>A (W1310X) for seven, c.580-1G>T (712-1G>T for eight, and c.1240_1244delCAAAA (1365del5) for 11 unrelated patients. A comprehensive analysis of CFTR mutant alleles with sequencing followed by MLPA, allowed not only the identification of 163 of 164 unknown alleles in our patient sample, but also expansion of the mutation spectrum with novel and additional frequent variants for ethnic Russians.
Allele frequencies and genetic diversity in the population of Teleuts were assessed by the Alu repeat polymorphism at eight autosomal loci (ACE, APOA1, PLAT, F13, PV92, A25, CD4, Dl). For comparison, the study included previously obtained data on the Alu polymorphism in 19 indigenous populations of Siberia. On the dendrogram of genetic distances, the Teleut population is located in the cluster of Siberian ethnic groups, which are similar in origin, geography, and cultural traditions.
Distribution of CTG repetitive sequences in the myotonic dystrophy (MD) gene was analyzed in ten populations of the Volga-Ural region, including Tatars, Chuvashes, Maris, Udmurts, Mordovians, Komis, and four ethnogeographical groups of Bashkirs. A total of 25 alleles were found (9 to 14 in individual populations), with each allele containing 5 to 34 trinucleotide repeats. The allele frequency distribution had two peaks corresponding to alleles with 5 and 11-14 CTG repeats. The frequency of the (CTG)5 allele varied from 0.23 to 0.47 in Maris and Mordovians, respectively. Regarding the (CTG)11-14 alleles, those containing 13 and 12 trinucleotides were most frequent in all populations; their frequencies varied from 0.15 in Mordovians to 0.24 in Maris and Bashkirs from the Abzelilovskii raion (district). Alleles with large numbers of repeats (more than 30) were only found in Tatars and Bashkirs from the Abzelilovskii raion, where their frequency was 0.01. The data obtained were compared with those on other human populations from various regions of the world. In general, the populations of the Volga-Ural region took an intermediate position between European and Asian populations (although were somewhat more similar to the latter ones) with respect to the distribution of allelic frequencies of the CTG repetitive sequences. In individual populations, the number of genotypes varied from 13 to 27 in Mordovians and Bashkirs from the Ilishevskii raion, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was the highest (91%) in Udmurts and the lowest (58%) in Mordovians; the average heterozygosity was 81%. Such a high heterozygosity, as well as the revealed differentiation of the populations with respect to the distribution of the allelic frequencies of CTG repetitive sequences in the MD gene, allow this polymorphic DNA locus to be considered a highly informative genetic marker of populations.