Justicia spicigera is a plant species used for the Teenak (Huesteca Potosina) and Mayan (Yucatan peninsula) indigenous for the empirical treatment of diabetes, infections and as stimulant.
To evaluate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of J. spicigera.
The effects of ethanolic extracts of J. spicigera (JSE) on the glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes was evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the extract of JSE was determined by ABTS and DPPH methods. Additionally, it was evaluated the antidiabetic properties of JSE on T2DM model.
JSE stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant human and murine adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner with higher potency than rosiglitazone 1mM. JSE showed antioxidant effects in vitro and induced glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
The antidiabetic effects of administration of J. spicigera are related to the stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes and this evidence justify its empirical use in Traditional Medicine. In addition, J. spicigera exerts glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Adinandra nitida Merr. ex. H.L. Li (Theaceae) is an indigenous plant in south China. Its leaves have been reported to have many curative effects such as reducing blood pressure, as well as antibacterial, antioxidant, and analgesic properties, which could be used in foods and medicines.
The antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the main flavonoids and ethanol extract (EE) of A. nitida leaves were investigated for the first time.
The main flavonoids of A. nitida leaves (camellianin A, camellianin B) were prepared and their contents in EE were determined by HPLC. The antioxidant activities of the samples were measured by DPPH radical scavenging assay and Rancimat test. The ACE inhibitory activities of the samples were carried out by using an assay kit with hippuryl-glycyl-glycine as substrate.
The contents of camellianin A, camellianin B and apigenin in EE were determined as 41.98, 2.67, and 1.73%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the flavonoids were far lower than that of EE in DPPH radical scavenging and Rancimat assays. However, the ACE-inhibitory activities of camellianin A, camellianin B and apigenin were higher than that of EE.
The flavonoid content of EE was more than 45%. The high activities of EE in DPPH scavenging and Rancimat assay could be mainly attributed to compounds other than flavonoids. However, the ACE-inhibitory activity of EE could be mainly attributed to the presence of the flavonoids.
In this study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumorigenic activities of a fractionated, ethanol extract derived from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), a plant indigenous to Korea, China, and Japan, were determined. Physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that the active component of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated RVS extract (PII fraction) was a copper-containing glycoprotein, possibly a plant laccase. Antioxidant activity of the fractionated RVS extract, observed in both aqueous and lipid in vitro oxidation reactions using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, site-specific Fenton-reaction deoxyribose, and a model lipid emulsion test system, indicated an affinity for protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Cultured mouse brain neurons were protected against glucose oxidase-induced hydroxyl radical in the presence of the fractionated RVS extract (e.g., 58% protection at 4.9 microM and 95% protection with 22.7 microM RVS). RVS was further shown to protect against in vitro Fenton-reaction-induced single- and double-strand scission in supercoiled plasmid DNA. Further testing for bioactivity of the fractionated RVS extract was based on the affinity to inhibit cell proliferation in cultured HeLa and CT-26 tumor cells. The presence of RVS resulted in 70% cell death after 24 h of incubation in both cell lines at a minimum concentration of 2.48 microM RVS. Data demonstrate multiple bioactive chemopreventative properties of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated extract derived from RVS.
Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts.
Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis. If the metals found in propolis are removed, cell lysis still occurs and these modified extracts may be used in the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations.
The antibacterial activity of metal-free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE) on two biofilm forming bacteria: penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated using MTT and a Live/Dead staining technique. Toxicity studies were conducted on mouse osteoblast (MC-3T3) cells using the same viability assays.
In the MTT assay, biofilms were incubated with MTT at 37°C for 30min. After washing, the purple formazan formed inside the bacterial cells was dissolved by SDS and then measured using a microplate reader by setting the detecting and reference wavelengths at 570nm and 630nm, respectively. Live and dead distributions of cells were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
Complete biofilm inactivation was observed when biofilms were treated for 40h with 2µg/ml of MFRPEE. Results indicate that the metals present in propolis possess antibacterial activity, but do not have an essential role in the antibacterial mechanism of action. Additionally, the same concentration of metals found in propolis samples, were toxic to tissue cells. Comparable to samples with metals, metal free samples caused damage to the cell membrane structures of both bacterial species, resulting in cell lysis.
Results suggest that the structural mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts stem predominate from the organic compounds. Further studies revealed drastically reduced toxicity to mammalian cells when metals were removed from Russian propolis ethanol extracts, suggesting a potential for medical and biomedical applications.
Glycerol, alpha-carotene, and other yet unidentified compounds have been found in the ethanol extract from winter caterpillars of the black-veined white (Aporia crataegi L.). We have shown that the ethanol extract has a cryoprotective effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and this activity is approximately three times higher than that of glycerol (particularly, in the case of repeated freezing), which is one of the best cryoprotectors.
In response to new demands for increased removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, the Henriksdal and Bromma treatment plants, with hydraulic loads of 283,000 and 148,000 m3/d, respectively, built filtration steps as a final process step in the plants. The denitrification rates in a full-scale and in a pilot plant filter are calculated to 13.1 and 21.3 g (NO3+NO2)-N/(m3 x h), respectively, in the total filter bed after 2.5-24.2 and 16.0-28.0 h of operational time, and 6.4 and 18.7 g (NO3+NO2)-N/(m3 x h), respectively, after 1.0 and 0.1-0.9 h of operational time. In composite samples, the denitrification rate in the total filter bed is 10-20 g (NO3+NO2)-N/(m3 x h) in the full-scale filter. The average values for k = deltaCODf/deltaC(T) are 1.6 and around 3 in the total filter bed in steady state and in the beginning of the experiments, respectively, both in the full-scale and in the pilot plant study. The carbon source costs for reducing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the Bromma plant from 12 to 8 mg/l in the effluent are 117,400 EUR and 147,400 EUR with methanol and ethanol, respectively, as a carbon source.
Some organic solvents (2-10%) have been comparatively studied for their effect on purified transporting Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase, solubilized from the plasma membrane of smooth muscle cells and on actomyosine ATPase of the smooth muscle. The inhibiting effect of solvents on the initial maximum specific activity of Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase corresponds to the sequence dioxane > acetone > ethanol > dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Like the case with Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase, dioxane inhibits actomyosine ATPase; acetone, ethanol and DMSO stimulate ATP-hydrolase reaction which is catalyzed by the complex of contractile proteins. It is proved that the effect of the decrease of ATPase activity with decrease of incubation medium polarity is exceptionally determined by the value of incubation medium the dielectric permeability. This effect is independent of chemical nature of organic solvents which were used with the aim to obtain the corresponding values of D. It is supposed that the cause of activity inhibition of solubilized transporting Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase under the effect of dioxane, acetone, ethanol and inhibition of activity of actomyosine ATPase as affected by dioxane is mainly connected with the increase of electrostatical interaction between opposity charged active centre of ATPase and the product (products) of ATP-hydrolase reaction (Mg ADP-, HPO4(2-)), which is induced by the decrease of incubation medium polarity (the decrease of D value). Stimulating effect of acetone and ethanol on actomyosine ATPase is probably determined by superposition of two components: that connected with direct effect of these solvents on the protein catalyst (interaction with enzyme with the future break of hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds in the protein and its "fluffing") and "electrostatic component" determined by the change of D value of the incubation medium. Possible role of electrostatic interactions between ATPases and reagents as the factor of non-specific control of catalytic activity of these enzymes is discussed.
Band broadening at high electric field strengths in capillary electrophoresis (CE), especially in wide capillaries, is often attributed to radial temperature gradients in the interior of the capillary caused by Joule heating. In some cases, however, a major cause of the lower separation efficiency could be the abrupt application of high electric field strength. We show that, with ethanol as background electrolyte solvent, initial abrupt voltage application introduces band broadening, which is especially pronounced in wider capillaries at high electric field and ionic strengths. With an appropriate initial voltage ramp this effect can be avoided. The effect of different voltage ramp up times on the separation efficiency of some anionic analytes was investigated with 50, 75 and 100 microm I.D. capillaries at field strengths of 1000-2000 V cm(-1). The results suggest that the band broadening associated with abrupt voltage application is of thermal origin and probably related to thermal volume expansion of the sample and background electrolyte solutions. The plate numbers calculated with a plate height model were in good agreement with the experimental values when a sufficiently long voltage ramp was employed. The dispersion due to axial temperature gradients was found to be very small under the experimental conditions used.
The ethanol production cost in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-based bioethanol process is influenced by the requirements for yeast production and for enzymes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate--technically and economically--the influence of these two factors on the production cost. A base case with 5 g/L of baker's yeast and an initial concentration of water-insoluble solids of 5% resulted in an experimental yield of 85%. When these data were implemented in Aspen Plus, yeast was assumed to be produced from sugars in the hydrolysate, reducing the overall ethanol yield to 69%. The ethanol production cost was 4.80 SEK/L (2.34 US$/gal). When adapted yeast was used at 2 g/L, an experimental yield of 74% was achieved and the estimated ethanol production cost was the same as in the base case. A 50% reduction in enzyme addition resulted in an increased production cost, to 5.06 SEK/L (2.47 US$/gal) owing to reduced ethanol yield.
Microdialysis, a new bioanalytical sampling technique enables measurement of substances in the extracellular space. This initial study investigates the technique's usefulness in the field of percutaneous absorption of solvents, using ethanol as test substance. Microdialysis probes are equipped at the tip with a semi-permeable polycarbonate membrane which permits passive diffusion of substances. Ethanol does not damage the membrane. In vitro recovery for ethanol is good. Probes were inserted via a guide into the skin of the ventral forearm in 7 volunteers. 99.5% ethanol was applied to the skin in excess in a glass reservoir. The probe was perfused at a flow of 1 microliter/min. 50 microliters samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Absorption of ethanol was demonstrated in all subjects. Values from the 9 probes inserted ranged from 10 micrograms/ml to 800 micrograms/ml. The variation may be explained by inter-test or inter-individual variability in ethanol absorption. Individual metabolic capacity may be of importance. The method opens new possibilities in the investigation of skin barrier function in man.