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Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79263
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2006 Nov;51(6):1383-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Lindström Richard
Bylund Per-Olof
Eriksson Anders
Author Affiliation
Section of Forensic Medicine, Department of Community Health and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, PO Box 7616, SE-907 12 Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2006 Nov;51(6):1383-8
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Arrhythmia - etiology - mortality
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood - urine
Child
Child, Preschool
Electric Injuries - mortality
Ethanol - blood - urine
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.
PubMed ID
17199625 View in PubMed
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Acute alcohol use among patients with acute hip fractures: a descriptive incidence study in southeastern Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170436
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 May-Jun;41(3):345-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
J-P Kaukonen
I. Nurmi-Lüthje
P. Lüthje
H. Naboulsi
S. Tanninen
M. Kataja
M-L Kallio
M. Leppilampi
Author Affiliation
Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland. juha-pekka.kaukonen@phks.fi
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 May-Jun;41(3):345-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Home
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alanine Transaminase - blood
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Aspartate Aminotransferases - blood
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Data Collection
Ethanol - blood
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
To assess the very recent use of alcohol among patients admitted to two Finnish hospitals due to an acute hip fracture.
Very recent use of alcohol was recorded according to the patient's or the relatives' report. Ethanol was measured in blood samples taken at admission. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and vitamin D concentration were measured. Reported use of medication, vitamin D, and/or calcium supplementation was recorded.
Complete data were obtained on 222 of 375 eligible patients; 71% of those enrolled were women. The mean age of women was 80.5 years (SD 10) and of men 73 years (SD 12) (P 1.0 mg/l. Recent alcohol use was more common among patients in the age group of 65-74 years than among older patients (P
PubMed ID
16510531 View in PubMed
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[Acute fatal alcohol poisoning in forensic material]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12581
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1987 Jun 29;149(27):1833-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-29-1987

Acute influence of alcohol, THC or central stimulants on violent suicide: A Swedish population study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258141
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2014 Mar;59(2):436-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Lena Lundholm
Ingemar Thiblin
Bo Runeson
Anders Leifman
Anna Fugelstad
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2014 Mar;59(2):436-40
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Asphyxia - mortality
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Central Nervous System Stimulants - blood
Dronabinol - blood
Drowning - mortality
Ethanol - blood
Female
Forensic Psychiatry
Forensic Toxicology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Neck Injuries - mortality
Poisoning - mortality
Registries
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Wounds, Gunshot - mortality
Wounds, Penetrating - mortality
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol and substance abuse in general is a risk factor for suicide, but very little is known about the acute effect in relation to suicide method. Based on information from 18,894 medico-legal death investigations, including toxicological findings and manner of death, did the present study investigate whether acute influence of alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) was related to the use of a violent suicide method, in comparison with the nonviolent method self-poisoning and alcohol-/illicit drug-negative suicide decedents. Multivariate analysis was conducted, and the results revealed that acute influence of THC was related to using the violent suicide method–– jumping from a height (RR 1.62; 95% CI 1.01–2.41). Alcohol intoxication was not related to any violent method, while the central stimulant-positive suicide decedent had a higher, albeit not significant, risk of several violent methods. The study contributes with elucidating suicide methods in relation to acute intoxication.
PubMed ID
24745078 View in PubMed
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[Acute lethal alcohol intoxication (author's transl)]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13238
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1976;78(4):313-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
B. Kringsholm
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1976;78(4):313-9
Date
1976
Language
German
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications - mortality - pathology
Autopsy
Cardiomegaly - etiology
Denmark
English Abstract
Ethanol - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Postmortem Changes
Sex Factors
Abstract
In 14,744 autopsy cases from an 18-year period 92 cases (of which 7 were ruled out because of decomposition were observed in which death was supposed to be due to direct acute alcoholic intoxication. In the police reports 81 persons were designated as chronic alcoholics or abusers of spirits. The blood alcohol level ranged between 2.04 and 4.92 o/oo. The cases studied were divided into two groups, one with low and the other with high lethal alcohol level. Fatty liver and cirrhosis were found with identical frequency in the two groups, whereas cardiac hypertrophy of obscure origin occurred markedly more often in the group with low lethal blood alcohol level. On the basis the possible mechanism of death in the cases with cardiac hypertrophy is discussed. Finally, the relation between the blood and urine alcohol concentrations observed in 72 cases is discussed. On the assumption that the water phase of the blood was 75 per cent of the total blood, death occurred in the persons without cardiac hypertrophy with fairly identical frequency either in the phase of absorption or the phase of elimination, whereas in the persons with cardiac hypertrophy death most often occurred in the phase of absorption. These statements should, however, be taken with some reservation, partly because the water phase of the blood may vary considerably post mortem (60-90 per cent) and partly because the urine alcohol concentration depends on serval variable factors.
PubMed ID
137612 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and accidents. A prospective study in a casualty department.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237761
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1986;75(6):304-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1986
Author
I. Antti-Poika
E. Karaharju
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1986;75(6):304-7
Date
1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications
Ethanol - blood
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Abstract
This study examines the incidence of alcohol-related accidents among trauma patients of working age (15-64 years). The study was made during a one-week period in the Casualty Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Helsinki University Central Hospital in Finland. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time of their admission. The state of alcohol intoxication was determined in Group I using a breath alcohol analyzer (alcometer) and in Group II using both alcometer and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The frequency of alcohol-related accidents in the whole material was 32.8% (Group I 12.4% and Group II 44.5%). Four-fifths of the patients were man. A high correlation (r = 0.93) was found between alcometer and BAC. In Group II there were intoxication levels of 3% or more (mean 3.6%) in 5.7% of all patients. This is a large number of cases of heavy alcohol intoxication and we propose to take the BAC of all patients having alcometer 3% or more in order to get as accurate a diagnosis of alcohol intoxication as possible. Fights and assaults were most frequently related to the alcohol intoxication cases.
PubMed ID
3579190 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism in Caucasians, Chinese and Amerinds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature250559
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Nov 6;115(9):851-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-6-1976
Author
T E Reed
H. Kalant
R J Gibbins
B M Kapur
J G Rankin
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Nov 6;115(9):851-5
Date
Nov-6-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaldehyde - blood - metabolism
Adipose Tissue
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
China - ethnology
Ethanol - blood - metabolism
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Jews
Male
Ontario
Abstract
Ethanol (0.4 to 0.8 g/kg in 30 minutes) was given by mouth to 102 healthy young volunteers (37 Caucasian men, 21 Caucasian women, 20 Chinese men and 24 Ojibwa men). Venous blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after the end of drinking were measured by gas chromatography. The calculated rates of ethanol metabolism in the Caucasian men and women did not differ, but the overall group means for subgroups of Caucasians (103.6 mg/kg-h), Chinese (136.6 mg/kg-h) and Ojibwa (182.7 mg/kg-h) with decreasing postabsorption values differed significantly from each other. Mean acetaldehyde values paralleled the rates of ethanol metabolism: Ojibwa, 14.6 mug/ml; Chinese, 10.0 mug/ml; and Caucasians, 9.4 mug/ml. The high rate of ethanol metabolism in Amerind subjects differs from previous findings. Habitual level of alcohol consumption, proportion of body fat and genetic factors appear to account for most of the group differences.
Notes
Cites: Q J Stud Alcohol. 1964 Sep;25:498-51014211146
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 1974 Feb;131(2):206-104809047
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1971 Sep 4;105(5):472-55112118
Cites: Pharmacol Rev. 1972 Mar;24(1):67-1574402043
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1972 Feb;76(2):326-75009602
Cites: Acta Chem Scand. 1973;27(2):541-504702589
Cites: Science. 1970 May 29;168(3935):1100-25462436
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1975 Feb 20;292(8):386-91110723
Cites: Fed Proc. 1975 Oct;34(11):2045-51170139
Cites: Hum Biol. 1973 Sep;45(3):509-264750414
Cites: Science. 1972 Jan 28;175(4020):449-505007912
Cites: Hum Biol. 1975 Sep;47(3):351-681176107
PubMed ID
991030 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Nord Med. 1969 Jul 3;82(27):830-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-3-1969

Alcohol and drugs in drivers fatally injured in traffic accidents in Sweden during the years 2000-2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9208
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Jun 30;151(1):11-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-30-2005
Author
Per Holmgren
Anita Holmgren
Johan Ahlner
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Chemistry, National Board of Forensic Medicine, University hospital, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden. per.holmgren@rmv.se
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Jun 30;151(1):11-7
Date
Jun-30-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - trends
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Ethanol - blood
Female
Forensic Medicine
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pharmaceutical Preparations - administration & dosage
Sex Distribution
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
During the years 2000-2002, alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs were analysed in blood samples from fatally injured drivers in Sweden. The total number of drivers was 920 and in 855 of these, corresponding to 93%, a toxicological investigation was performed. About 85% of the drivers were men and 15% were women. All but three women (96%) were car drivers while the corresponding figure for men was about 78% and about 13% were motorcyclists. The number of positive cases increased from 38.9% in year 2000 to 45.9% in year 2002 and alcohol was the most common drug with frequencies of 19.8%, 25.0% and 21.8% for the studied years 2000, 2001 and 2002, respectively. The median blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1.6 to 2.0mg/mL for men and from 1.2 to 1.8 mg/mL for women. There was a decrease in cases where alcohol was the only drug detected, from 52 out of 58 cases (90%) in year 2000 to 41 out of 61 cases (67%) in 2002. At the same time there was an increase, from 5.4% to 10.0% of illicit drugs, mainly amphetamine, and the cases with multiple drug intake increased from 10% to 26%. The prevalence of pharmaceuticals as the only drug or drugs detected decreased from 14.0% to 10.4% and in the majority of these cases the drug concentrations were within the therapeutic range.
PubMed ID
15935937 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and drugs in suspected impaired drivers in Ontario from 2001 to 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148345
Source
J Forensic Leg Med. 2009 Nov;16(8):444-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
J-P F P Palmentier
R. Warren
L Y Gorczynski
Author Affiliation
Toxicology Section, Centre of Forensic Sciences, 25 Grosvenor Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. jean.paul.palmentier@ontario.ca
Source
J Forensic Leg Med. 2009 Nov;16(8):444-8
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Breath Tests
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Ethanol - blood
Female
Flame Ionization
Forensic Toxicology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Narcotics - blood
Ontario
Sex Distribution
Substance Abuse Detection
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis
Young Adult
Abstract
Blood samples from 733 drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol in the province of Ontario from 2001 to 2005 were retrospectively examined.
Samples were analyzed for alcohol content by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Drivers ranged in age from 15 to 83 years old with the majority of blood samples obtained from males (n=623, 85%). Of the 704 cases where quantifiable numerical values were obtained, blood alcohol concentrations ranged from 13 to 414 mg/100 mL (mean 172 mg/100 mL) for males and 10 to 425 mg/100 mL (mean 173 mg/100 mL) for females. The majority of these drivers (n=640/704, 90.9%) had blood alcohol concentrations of 80 mg/100 mL and greater at the time of sampling. Analysis for alcohol was undertaken in all cases. However, additional toxicological examinations for drugs was conducted on a case-by-case basis based on the submitted case history and/or where there were requests for additional drug analysis, or where such analysis would be probative in the absence of the detection of alcohol at a concentration that could cause impairment.
Therefore, analyses for drugs were only performed in a small subset of 42 cases (6%). Thirty-four of these cases had positive drug findings, with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol being the most frequently encountered drug (n=18), followed by benzoylecgonine/cocaine (n=8), morphine (n=6), lorazepam (n=5) and diphenhydramine (n=4). The majority of individuals were involved in some type of motor vehicle accident (n=658, 89.8%), with single motor vehicle accidents (n=412, 56.2%) being the most common, followed by multiple motor vehicle accidents (n=169, 23%). Injuries (n=309, 42.1%) were the main cause of individuals not being able to provide breath samples with specific, non-life threatening injuries (n=178, 24.3%) representing the highest percentage of cases. The majority of incidents (n=449, 61.3%) occurred between Friday and Sunday reaching a peak on Saturday (n=174, 23.7%). Incidents occurred throughout the day, with the majority of events (n=449/705, 63.7%) for which a time was provided occurring between 6:01 pm and 3:00 am, and the peak number of incidents occurring between 9:01 pm and midnight (n=168/705, 23.8%).
However, these data demonstrate that ''drugged driving" does occur and that further, comprehensive investigation is needed to determine the frequency and type of drug use by Ontario drivers.
PubMed ID
19782313 View in PubMed
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249 records – page 1 of 25.