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Antioxidants and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20316
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):750-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2000
Author
P. Terry
J. Lagergren
W. Ye
O. Nyrén
A. Wolk
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. paul.terry@mep.ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):750-4
Date
Sep-1-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Aged
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cardia - drug effects - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Dietary Supplements
Drug Synergism
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Gastroesophageal Reflux - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Vitamin E - administration & dosage
beta Carotene - administration & dosage
Abstract
Antioxidant vitamins have attracted considerable attention in previous studies of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, but dietary studies of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia remain sparse. Treating these tumors as distinct diseases, we studied intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Sweden, with 185, 165, and 258 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, respectively, and 815 controls. Subjects with a high parallel intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol showed a 40-50% decreased risk of both histological types of esophageal cancer compared with subjects with a low parallel intake. Antioxidant intake was not associated with the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Separately, vitamin C and beta-carotene reduced the risk of esophageal cancers more than alpha-tocopherol. We found that antioxidant intake is associated with similar risk reductions for both main histological types of esophageal cancer. Our findings indicate that antioxidants do not explain the diverging incidence rates of the 2 histological types of esophageal cancer. Moreover, our data suggest that inverse associations with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma may be stronger among subjects under presumed higher oxidative stress due to smoking or gastroesophageal reflux, respectively. Our results may be relevant for the implementation of focused, cost-effective preventive measures.
PubMed ID
10925371 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake of lignans and risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125008
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Jun;23(6):837-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Yulan Lin
Agneta Yngve
Jesper Lagergren
Yunxia Lu
Author Affiliation
Unit of Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Norra Stationsgatan 67, Stockholm, Sweden. yulan.lin@ki.se
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Jun;23(6):837-44
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Aged
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Esophagogastric Junction - metabolism - pathology
Female
Humans
Lignans - administration & dosage
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Phytoestrogens - administration & dosage
Risk factors
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The strong male predominance in esophageal and gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma remains unexplained. Sex hormonal influence has been suggested, but not proven. A protective role of dietary phytoestrogen lignans was hypothesized.
A Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study was conducted in 1995-1997, including 181 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 255 cases of gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma, 158 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 806 control subjects. Data on various exposures, including dietary data, were collected through personal interviews and questionnaires. Dietary intake of lignans was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles based on the consumption among the control participants. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95?% confidence intervals (CIs), including adjustment for all established risk factors.
Participants in the highest quartile of intake of lignans compared with the lowest quartile were at a decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.65; 95?% CI, 0.38-1.12; p for trend =0.03), gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.37; 95?% CI, 0.23-0.58; p for trend
PubMed ID
22527161 View in PubMed
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Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86808
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 16;100(8):572-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-16-2008
Author
Edgren Gustaf
Reilly Marie
Hjalgrim Henrik
Tran Trung Nam
Rostgaard Klaus
Adami Johanna
Titlestad Kjell
Shanwell Agneta
Melbye Mads
Nyrén Olof
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. gustaf.edgren@ki.se
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 16;100(8):572-9
Date
Apr-16-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Donors - statistics & numerical data
Case-Control Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Iron - blood
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - blood - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Odds Ratio
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: No clear association was observed between number of donations and risk of cancer overall. However, between the lowest ( 90th percentile, > 2.7 g) categories of estimated iron loss, there was a trend (P(trend) 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron loss in men. The positive association between frequent plasma donation and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma deserves further exploration.
PubMed ID
18398098 View in PubMed
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Effect of chronic intake of NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase 2-selective inhibitors on esophageal cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178015
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Oct;2(10):880-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Marc Bardou
Alan N Barkun
Joumana Ghosn
Marie Hudson
Elham Rahme
Author Affiliation
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. marc.bardou@u-bourgogne.fr
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Oct;2(10):880-7
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - therapeutic use
Aspirin - therapeutic use
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Databases as Topic
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lactones - therapeutic use
Logistic Models
Male
Pyrazoles - therapeutic use
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sulfonamides - therapeutic use
Sulfones - therapeutic use
Abstract
A rising incidence and a poor survival rate make esophageal cancer a major health issue, hence the need for chemoprevention. We investigated the effects of the selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (coxibs), rofecoxib and celecoxib, the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspirin on esophageal cancer.
This nested case-control study used data from a government-run insurance database on patients 66 years and older who underwent esophageal imaging (esophagogastroduodenoscopy or barium swallow) between January 1999 and September 2002. Logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of chronic exposure, by using as proxy at least 30 days of use of the drugs of interest in the past year, on the occurrence of esophageal cancer.
The study included 251 cases and all 86,644 eligible control subjects. Patients more likely to have esophageal cancer (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) were men (3.42, 2.62-4.48) and older subjects (those 75-84 years and those > or =85 years: 1.40, 1.08-1.82 and 1.69, 1.05-2.72, respectively). Chronic exposure to coxibs or NSAIDs was associated with a significant risk reduction for esophageal cancer (0.63, 0.40-0.98 and 0.47, 0.24-0.93, respectively). Assessed separately, the point estimates were slightly lower for rofecoxib than for celecoxib when examining a possible duration-response effect, although all 95% confidence intervals overlapped (celecoxib: 0.51, 0.27-0.98; 0.30, 0.11-0.82; 0.39, 0.14-1.05; rofecoxib: 0.39, 0.16-0.96; 0.37, 0.12-1.16; 0.33, 0.08-1.36 for exposures of > or =30, > or =60, and > or =90 days, respectively).
Chronic intake of rofecoxib and celecoxib and of nonselective NSAIDs appears to be associated with a decreased incidence of esophageal cancer.
PubMed ID
15476151 View in PubMed
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Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285601
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Guri Skeie
Tonje Braaten
Anja Olsen
Cecilie Kyrø
Anne Tjønneland
Rikard Landberg
Lena Maria Nilsson
Maria Wennberg
Kim Overvad
Lene Angell Åsli
Elisabete Weiderpass
Eiliv Lund
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden
Whole Grains
Abstract
Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.
PubMed ID
26092139 View in PubMed
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