The extent to which clonal spread contributes to emerging antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli is incompletely defined. To address this question within a recent, nationally representative strain collection, three established drug-resistant E. coli clonal groups (i.e., clonal group A, E. coli O15:K52:H1, and sequence type 131 [ST131]) were sought among 199 E. coli urine isolates recovered from across Canada from 2002 to 2004, with stratification by resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) and fluoroquinolones (FQs). The isolates' clonal backgrounds, virulence genotypes, and macrorestriction profiles were assessed. The three clonal groups were found to account for 37.2% of isolates overall, but accounted for 0% of TS-susceptible (TS-S) and FQ-susceptible (FQ-S) isolates, 20% of TS-resistant (TS-R) and FQ-S isolates, 60% of TS-S and FQ-R isolates, and 68% of TS-R and FQ-R isolates (P
During recent years a rapid increase of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli have been noted in the Swedish broiler population, despite the lack of a known selective pressure. The current study wanted to investigate if imported breeding birds could be a source for the quinolone resistant E. coli. The occurrence of quinolone resistant E. coli was investigated, using selective cultivation with nalidixic acid, in grand-parent birds on arrival to Sweden and their progeny. In addition, sampling in hatcheries and empty cleaned poultry houses was performed. Clonality of isolates was investigated using a 10-loci multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). To identify the genetic basis for the resistance isolates were also analysed for occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and characterization of chromosomal mutations. E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid occurred in grandparent birds imported to Sweden for breeding purposes. Four predominant MLVA types were identified in isolates from grandparent birds, parent birds and broilers. However, resistant E. coli with identical MLVA patterns were also present in hatcheries and poultry houses suggesting that the environment plays a role in the occurrence. Nalidixic acid resistance was due to a mutation in the gyrA gene and no PMQR could be identified. The occurrence of identical clones in all levels of the production pyramid points to that quinolone resistant E. coli can be introduced through imported breeding birds and spread by vertical transmission to all levels of the broiler production pyramid.
The influence of some mineral salts on the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z9051 was investigated. It was shown that the composition (NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4) and concentration (5 and 10%) of the salts substantially affect the expression of genes for the luminescence system of light-emitting bacteria cloned in the plasmid under the control of the lac-promoter. In some cases, the luminescence level of the microorganism in the presence of salts was similar to the luminescence level under catabolite repression by glucose, the more strong influence of the salts exceeding the effect of catabolite repression. The possibility of adaptation of the genetically modified microorganism to the salinity factor is discussed.