The purpose of this study was to investigate the 5-year outcome following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Little is known about long-term outcomes following TAVI.
The 5-year outcomes following successful TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve were evaluated in 88 patients. Patients who died within 30 days after TAVI were excluded.
Mean aortic valve gradient decreased from 46 ± 18 mm Hg to 10 ± 4.5 mm Hg after TAVI and 11.8 ± 5.7 mm Hg at 5 years (p for post-TAVI trend = 0.06). Mean aortic valve area increased from 0.62 ± 0.17 cm(2) to 1.67 ± 0.41 cm(2) after TAVI and 1.40 ± 0.25 cm(2) at 5 years (p for post-TAVI trend
Anaesthesiologists from Oslo University Hospital have transported patients with severe oxygenation failure with inhaled nitric oxide (usually 20?ppm) from other hospitals to a tertiary care centre since 2002 in an effort to reduce the number of patients that otherwise would require transport with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient safety during transport with inhaled nitric oxide.
All patient transports with ongoing nitric oxide treatment undertaken from 2003 to 2012 were identified in the transport database. The frequency of adverse events and their impact on patient safety were studied in addition to response to inhaled nitric oxide and adjusted intensive care treatment and time aspects of the transports. Information about in-hospital treatment and survival were extracted from the hospital patient records.
Adverse events were recorded in 12 of the 104 transports. Seven of the adverse events were due to malfunctioning technical equipment, three were related to medication other than the inhaled nitric oxide and two were related to ventilation. No adverse events resulted in permanent negative patient consequences or in discontinuation of the transport. Out of 104 patients, 79 responded to treatment with inhaled nitric oxide and other treatment changes by an increase in oxygen saturation of more than 5%. The 30-day mortality was 27% in the group transported with inhaled nitric oxide.
Transporting patients on inhaled nitric oxide is an alternative in selected patients who would otherwise require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during transport.
The Conseal plug was evaluated in a four week period among 30 consecutive colostomy patients. The clinical trial, a multicenter study covering 11 Danish Hospitals, was started five to 12 days postoperatively among motivated patients in good physical condition. Twenty patients (67%) completed the trial. Ten patients (33%) gave up because of wound infection, leakage, extrusion of the foam part or fault in the test procedure. At the end of the trial all 20 patients wanted to continue using the plug and 84% were still using the Conseal system six months later. We conclude that the plug is well tolerated among motivated patients less than a week postoperatively and that the Conseal plug is a good alternative to the colostomy bag early in the postoperative course.
BACKGROUND. Acute fluoride poisoning produces a clinical syndrome characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and paresthesias. In May 1992, excess fluoride in one of two public water systems serving a village in Alaska caused an outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning. METHODS. We surveyed residents, measured their urinary fluoride concentrations, and analyzed their serum-chemistry profiles. A case of fluoride poisoning was defined as an illness consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or numbness or tingling of the face or extremities that began between May 21 and 23. RESULTS. Among 47 residents studied who drank water obtained on May 21, 22, or 23 from the implicated well, 43 (91 percent) had an illness that met the case definition, as compared with only 6 of 21 residents (29 percent) who drank water obtained from the implicated well at other times and 2 of 94 residents (2 percent) served by the other water system. We estimated that 296 people were poisoned; 1 person died. Four to five days after the outbreak, 10 of the 25 case patients who were tested, but none of the 15 control subjects, had elevated urinary fluoride concentrations. The case patients had elevated serum fluoride concentrations and other abnormalities consistent with fluoride poisoning, such as elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations. The fluoride concentration of a water sample from the implicated well was 150 mg per liter, and that of a sample from the other system was 1.1 mg per liter. Failure to monitor and respond appropriately to elevated fluoride concentrations, an unreliable control system, and a mechanism that allowed fluoride concentrate to enter the well led to this outbreak. CONCLUSIONS. Inspection of public water systems and monitoring of fluoride concentrations are needed to prevent outbreaks of fluoride poisoning.
To measure the predictive value of nuclear medicine studies (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] shuntograms) and radiographic studies (computed tomographic [CT] scans) in a cohort of children undergoing evaluation for suspected shunt obstruction in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (ED).
A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients younger than 18 years who presented to the pediatric ED of the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario and had both CT of the head and a CSF shuntogram ordered by the attending pediatric emergency medicine physician between December 1998 and April 2003 because of suspected shunt obstruction.
A total of 69 patients were evaluated for suspected shunt obstruction in the ED during this period with both a CT and a CSF shuntogram. Twenty-seven patients (39.1%) subsequently required corrective surgery for suspected shunt obstruction that was confirmed intraoperatively. The CT scans showed abnormalities suggestive of CSF shunt obstruction in 21 of the patients who required surgery (sensitivity, 77.8%; negative predictive value, 82.4%), whereas the CSF shuntograms showed abnormalities suggestive of CSF obstruction in 25 of the patients who required surgery (sensitivity, 92.6%; negative predictive value, 92.6%). The CT scans and the shuntograms combined revealed abnormalities suggestive of CSF shunt obstruction in 26 of the 27 patients who required surgery (sensitivity, 96.3%; negative predictive value, 97.4%).
Over one third of pediatric ED patients evaluated with CT and CSF shuntograms required surgical management. Sensitivity was increased with CT and CSF shuntogram compared with CT alone. Prospective studies are required to assess the use of radiographic and nuclear medicine tests for the shunt evaluation in conjunction with the development of a clinical prediction rule for the pediatric emergency physician.
Medical device problems as detected by the Health Protection Branch (HPB) of Health and Welfare Canada were studied in order to examine the frequency and safety priority of problems in the subgroup of anaesthesia devices. Data pertaining to the time period from April 1, 1987 to November 30, 1992 were gathered from the Medical Devices Notification Database and the DAFFY Reporting System. The Medical Devices Notification Database contains all notifications for newly marketed medical devices in Canada and the DAFFY Reporting System keeps record of all submitted problem reports and manufacturer recalls along with their designated safety priority status. When an important safety hazard is associated with a medical device as determined from information submitted to HPB, an Alert-Medical Devices may be issued to inform hospitals and health care professionals of the problem. During the studied time period, the percentages of problem reports and recalls as well as Alerts were compared with the percentage of newly marketed anaesthesia devices. It was found that although only 2.3% of the newly marketed medical devices were classified as anaesthesia devices, 8.6% of all problem reports/recalls and 37.5% of all Alerts originated from the field of anaesthesia devices. Comparison of the percentages of problem reports/recalls (8.6%) and Alerts (37.5%) with the percentage of marketed devices for anaesthesia (2.3%) showed differences (P
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 1993 Oct;40(10):911-48222028
We investigated the death circumstances among children in the Danish healthcare system by analysing closed claims.
This retrospective study investigated closed claims with regard to medically related deaths registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association.
From 1996 to 2008, 45 953 claims were made to the Danish Patient Insurance Association (DPIA) covering all medical specialties. Among these claims, a total of 3531 submitted claims were for children younger than 18 years old, and 74 of these children were registered as having died. Forty-one of the 74 deaths were caused by peripartum asphyxia or other birth-related reasons, and 33 children died of causes not related to their birth. Twenty-three of the 33 children died as a result of substandard treatment. This was the ruling of the DPIA or the courts of law on the claim. In these cases, the DPIA, the appeal board or the courts of law settled that an experienced specialist would have acted differently such that the injury could have been avoided.
Twenty-three of the 33 deaths after the perinatal period could potentially have been avoided if experienced specialists had handled the cases.
In 1978, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), developed a generic anesthesia equipment preuse checklist. The checklist was first released by the FDA in August 1986 and endorsed by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists on October 18, 1986. The FDA checklist was revised in 1992 to improve the abilities of anesthesia providers to detect machine faults. In the present study, the investigators attempted to determine the effectiveness of the revised FDA checklist in detection of anesthesia machine faults as compared to providers' usual methods. Whereas no published study of preanesthesia safety inspection had been performed since the revision of the FDA checklist, the authors compared the detection abilities of anesthesia providers before and after inclusion of the revised FDA checklist. Twenty-two anesthesia providers were tested to compare the number of prearranged anesthesia machine faults that could be detected with (1) their usual checkout methods, and (2) with the revised FDA checklist. Data describing the subjects' fault detection abilities were analyzed using the t test for paired observation (P value