The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.
The impact of agriculture on water ecosystems is considered. The negative effects of entry of pesticides and biogens into the aquatic environment, which lead to its pollution and eutrophication and biota change and degradation, are shown. The author discusses whether it is necessary to meticulously monitor the aquatic environment in the intensively agricultural areas.
Algorithm of serologic screening for HBsAg-mutants in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers with high level of HBsAg was developed which is based on the detection of defects of interactions of serum HBsAg with monoclonal anti-HBs realizing as a decrease of ELISA sensitivity in 10 times or more during serial 10-fold dilutions. During 1st stage commercial test-systems based on monoclonal antibodies was used to select serum samples with discrepancy of test results. During 2nd stage HBsAg contained in selected sera was analyzed by the panel of monoclonal and polyclonal anti-HBs conjugates using decrease in ELISA sensitivity as a criterion. Serum samples from 2510 chronic carriers of HBV with high level of HBsAg were studied. 19 samples with discrepant results were found. Subsequent characterization of HBsAg with panel of 11 monoclonal and 1 polyclonal conjugates allowed to distinguish groups of sera with specific serologic "portraits". Atypical features of HBsAg were confirmed by genotyping 9 of 19 samples. Analysis of primary nucleotide sequence revealed serologically meaningful mutations in S-gene of HBV in all 9 isolates: 3 of them contained substitution mutation G145R, 5--S143L, and one--T143M. Distribution of mutations in HBsAg corresponded with specific serologic "portraits". Prevalence of HBsAg mutations in HBV carriers with high level of HBsAg was assessed for the first time: prevalence of G145R, S143L/T143M mutations, and all serologically atypical variants was 0.12%, 0.24%, and 0.76% respectively. Developed algorithm was proposed for epidemiologic monitoring of HBsAg-mutants of HBVand control of diagnostic test-systems.
Ambient air pollution with flour dust (FD) and microorganisms, including microscopic fungi, was studied; the single concentrations of FD under emission plumes were 0.12-0.17 mg/m3; the total content of mould, field, and storage fungi was 700 +/- 30, 671 +/- 19, and 29 +/- 3, respectively. The maximum allowable concentrations for FD were ascertained; the equal ones were the maximum single concentration of 1.0; the daily average concentration was 0.4 mg/m3; hazard class IV; the limiting hazard index was their resorptive activity.
To analyze prevalence and variability of Legionella strains isolated in town Verkhnaya Pyshma located in Sverdlovsk region during prophylactic surveillance of potentially dangerous water objects in 2007 - 2008.
Sequencing of mip gene was conducted for identification of species of Legionella. Multi-locus sequence typing was used for describing of allelic profiles of Legionella pneumophila strains.
Five firstly identified on Russian territory strains of Legionella species were deposited in institute's collection. Sixty-three strains of L. pneumophila belonging to 28 sequence types were characterized. Relation between strains isolated in industrial building and from water supply system was demonstrated.
Observations made on the basis of study of L. pneumophila strains isolated from cooling stacks of industrial plants confirmed potential danger of these objects as a source of dissemination of Legionella infection.
In a cross-sectional study, the serum concentrations of inhibin B and prolactin of 96 male current welders were compared with the concentrations measured in 96 age-matched referents. Also, 23 patients who were all former welders diagnosed as having welding-related manganism were studied. The current welders' geometric mean (GM) airborne exposure to manganese (Mn) was 121 microg m(-3) (range 7-2320). The serum concentrations of prolactin adjusted for age and smoking habits (GM 193 mIU l(-1) vs. 166 mIU l(-1); p=0.047) and inhibin B adjusted for alcohol consumption (arithmetic mean (AM) 151 ng l(-1) vs. 123 ng l(-1); p=0.001) were higher in the welders compared with the referents. The whole blood Mn concentration was associated with the serum prolactin concentrations. Tobacco smoking resulted in lower serum prolactin concentrations. The GM serum prolactin concentrations of the patients did not significantly differ from that of the referents, but their AM serum inhibin B concentration was statistically significantly lower. The results may suggest an effect of Mn on the pituitary that is reversible upon cessation of exposure. Lower inhibin B concentrations in the patients could point to a functional impairment of the testicular Sertoli cells, that may be caused by a welding fume component or other factors in their work environment.
At the period of 1982 - 2003, morbidity rate in pseudotuberculosis and the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis culture rates in groups of servicemen (from different abiotic objects, from humans and small rodents) in different geographic zones were studied. The cases of the isolation of Y. pseudotuberculosis were most frequently registered in groups of servicemen in the Far East and the Kola Peninsula. In these regions the highest morbidity rate in pseudotuberculosis was registered among servicemen. The contamination rate of vegetables during the year was always greater than in other objects under study, including small rodents. The study demonstrated that in the Armed Forces could appear, temporary and relatively constant anthropurgic foci of pseudotuberculosis even in non endemic regions. They were formed in the objects of the food supply service due to the supply of contaminated vegetables. Synanthropic rodents played a secondary role, though they too facilitated the formation of new anthropurgic foci. Under definite conditions anthropurgic foci could exist autonomously, independently of natural foci.