This paper draws together the mortality experience for a cohort of some 11000 male Quebec Chrysotile miners and millers, reported at intervals since 1971 and now again updated. Of the 10918 men in the complete cohort, 1138 were lost to view, almost all never traced after employment of only a month or two before 1935; the other 9780 men were traced into 1992. Of these, 8009 (82%) are known to have died: 657 from lung cancer, 38 from mesotheliona, 1205 from other malignant disease, 108 from pneumoconiosis and 561 from other non-malignant respiratory diseases (excluding tuberculosis). After early fluctuations. SMRs (all causes) against Quebec rates have been reasonably steady since about 1945. For men first employed in Asbestos, mine or factory, they were very much what might have been expected for a blue collar population without any hazardous exposure. SMRs in the Thetford Mines area were almost 8% higher, but in line with anecdotal evidence concerning socio-economic status. At exposures below 300 (million particles per cubic foot) x years, (mpcf.y), equivalent to roughly 1000 (fibres/ml) x years-or, say, 10 years in the 1940s at 80 (fibres/ml)-findings were as follows. There were no discernible associations of degree of exposure and SMRs, whether for all causes of death or for all the specific cancer sites examined. The average SMRs were 1.07 (all causes), and 1.16, 0.93, 1.03 and 1.21, respectively, for gastric, other abdominal, laryngeal and lung cancer. Men whose exposures were less then 300 mpcf.y suffered almost one-half of the 146 deaths from pneumoconiosis or mesothelioma; the elimination of these two causes would have reduced these men's SMR (all causes) from 1.07 to approximately 1.06. Thus it is concluded from the viewpoint of mortality that exposure in this industry to less than 300 mpcf.y has been essentially innocuous, although there was a small risk or pneumoconiosis or mesothelioma. Higher exposures have, however, led to excesses, increasing with degree of exposure, of mortality from all causes, and from lung cancer and stomach cancer, but such exposures, of at least 300 mpcf.y, are several orders of magnitude more severe than any that have been seen for many years. The effects of cigarette smoking were much more deleterious than those of dust exposure, not only for lung cancer (the SMR for smokers of 20+ cigarettes a day being 4.6 times higher than that for non-smokers), but also for stomach cancer (2.0 times higher), laryngeal cancer (2.9 times higher), and-most importantly-for all causes (1.6 times higher).
Comment In: Ann Occup Hyg. 1997 Jan;41(1):3-129072948
Comment In: Ann Occup Hyg. 2001 Jun;45(4):329-35; author reply 336-811414250
The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
We estimated age-standardized ratios of infection and hospitalization among Canadian First Nations (FN) populations and compared their distributions with those estimated for non-FN populations in Manitoba, Canada.
For the spring and fall 2009 waves of the H1N1 pandemic, we obtained daily numbers of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized cases of H1N1 infection, stratified by 5-year age groups and FN status. We calculated age-standardized ratios with confidence intervals for each wave and compared ratios between age groups in each ethnic group and between the 2 waves for FN and non-FN populations.
Incidence and hospitalization ratios in all FN age groups during the first wave were significantly higher than those in non-FN age groups (P
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common early childhood infections, resulting in an enormous economic burden to the health care system through unscheduled doctor visits and antibiotic prescriptions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between ambient air pollution exposure and emergency department (ED) visits for OM.
Ten years of ED data were obtained from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and linked to levels of air pollution: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter (PM) of median aerometric diameter
Cites: An Pediatr (Barc). 2004 Feb;60(2):133-814757016
Cites: Vaccine. 2008 Dec 23;26 Suppl 7:G5-1019094935
Tularaemia has mainly been a sporadic disease in Norway. In 2011, 180 persons (3.7 per 100,000 population) were diagnosed with tularaemia. This article describes the epidemiological and clinical features of tularaemia cases during a year with exceptionally high tularaemia incidence. Data from the national reference laboratory for tularaemia combined with epidemiological data from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) were used. The incidence of tularaemia varied greatly between counties, but almost every county was involved. The majority (77.8 %) of the cases were diagnosed during the autumn and winter months. The geographic distribution also showed seasonal patterns. Overall, oropharyngeal tularaemia (41.1 %) was the most common clinical presentation, followed by glandular (14.4 %), typhoidal (14.4 %), respiratory (13.3 %) and ulceroglandular (12.8 %) tularaemia. From January to April, oropharyngeal tularaemia dominated, from May to September, ulceroglandular tularaemia was most common, whereas from October to December, there was an almost even distribution between several clinical forms of tularaemia. Eighty-five (47.2 %) of all tularaemia cases were admitted to, or seen as outpatients in, hospitals. An unexpectedly high number (3.9 %) of the patients had positive blood culture with Francisella tularensis. The clinical manifestations of tularaemia in Norway in 2011 were diverse, and changing throughout the year. Classification was sometimes difficult due to uncharacteristic symptoms and unknown mode of transmission. In rodent years, tularaemia is an important differential diagnosis to keep in mind at all times of the year for a variety of clinical symptoms.
Ambient exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been previously associated with emergency department (ED) visits for migraine headaches. In the present study, the objective was to examine the relationship between ED visits for migraine and ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations.
This was a time-series study of 1059 ED visits for migraine (ICD-9: 346) recorded at a Vancouver hospital between 1999 and 2003 (1 520 days). Air pollution levels of SO2 were measured by fixed-site monitoring stations. The generalized linear mixed models technique was applied to regress daily counts of ED visits for migraine on the levels of the pollutant after adjusting for meteorological conditions: temperature and relative humidity. The analysis was stratified by season and gender.
Positive and statistically significant correlations were observed for SO2 exposure and ED visits for migraine for females during colder months (October-March). The percentage increase in daily visits was 16.8% (95% CI: 1.2-34.8) for a 4-day average (of daily mean concentrations) SO2 level, for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 1.9 ppb.
Our findings provide additional support for a consistent correlation between migraine headache and air pollution (SO2).
To analyze prevalence and variability of Legionella strains isolated in town Verkhnaya Pyshma located in Sverdlovsk region during prophylactic surveillance of potentially dangerous water objects in 2007 - 2008.
Sequencing of mip gene was conducted for identification of species of Legionella. Multi-locus sequence typing was used for describing of allelic profiles of Legionella pneumophila strains.
Five firstly identified on Russian territory strains of Legionella species were deposited in institute's collection. Sixty-three strains of L. pneumophila belonging to 28 sequence types were characterized. Relation between strains isolated in industrial building and from water supply system was demonstrated.
Observations made on the basis of study of L. pneumophila strains isolated from cooling stacks of industrial plants confirmed potential danger of these objects as a source of dissemination of Legionella infection.