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The association between daily mortality and ambient air particle pollution in Montreal, Quebec. 1. Nonaccidental mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194476
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):12-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J C Bailar
J. Brook
Y. Bonvalot
R. Tamblyn
R. Singh
M F Valois
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):12-25
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Mortality
Quebec - epidemiology
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether variations in concentrations of particles in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984 to 1993, were associated with daily variations in nonaccidental mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We estimated associations for PM(2.5), PM(10), total suspended particles, coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and sulfates. We used coefficient of haze, extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine particles and sulfates for days that were missing. To estimate the associations between nonaccidental mortality and ambient air particles, we regressed the logarithm of daily counts of nonaccidental mortality on the daily mean levels for the above measures of particulates, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and gaseous pollutants. There were 140,939 residents of Montreal who died during the study period. We found evidence of associations between daily nonaccidental deaths and most measures of particulate air pollution. For example, the mean percentage increase (MPC) for an increase of total suspended particles of 28.57 microg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQ), evaluated at lag 0 days, was 1.86% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.00-3.76%), and for an increase of coefficient of haze (IQ=18.5 COH units per 327.8 linear m) the MPC was 1.44% (95% CI: 0.75-2.14%). These results are similar to findings from other studies (the mean percentage increase in nonaccidental deaths for a 100 microg/m(3) increase in daily total suspended particles was 6.7%). We also found increases for fine particles and for inhalable particles, but the confidence intervals included unity. All measures of sulfates showed increased daily mortality; e.g., the MPC for sulfates from fine particles (IQ=3.51 microg/m(3)) was 1.86% (95% CI: 0.40-3.35%). We generally found higher excesses in daily mortality for persons 65 years of age and for exposures averaged across lags 0, 1, and 2 days. The slope of the association between daily mortality and ambient air particles in Montreal, which has lower levels of pollution than most major urban centers, is similar to that reported in most other industrialized cities. This study therefore provides further evidence that the association is linear and that any threshold effect, should it exist, would be found at lower levels of air pollution than those found in Montreal.
PubMed ID
11386737 View in PubMed
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The association between daily mortality and ambient air particle pollution in Montreal, Quebec. 2. Cause-specific mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194475
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J C Bailar
J. Brook
Y. Bonvalot
R. Tamblyn
R. Singh
M F Valois
R. Vincent
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Coronary Disease - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus - mortality
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Mortality
Quebec - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether variations in concentrations of particulates in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984 to 1993, were associated with daily variations in cause-specific daily mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of various measures of particles and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfate was also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and sulfate from the Sutton station to predict fine particles and sulfate from fine particles for days that were missing. We estimated associations between cause-specific mortality and PM(2.5), PM(10), predicted fine particles and fine sulfate particles, total suspended particles, coefficient of haze, extinction coefficient, and total sulfate measured at the Sutton station. We selected a set of underlying causes of death, as recorded on the death certificates, as the endpoint and then regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on the daily mean levels for the above measures of particulates, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and gaseous pollutants. We found positive and statistically significant associations between the daily measures of ambient particle mass and sulfate mass and the deaths from respiratory diseases and diabetes. The mean percentage change in daily mortality (MPC), evaluated at the interquartile range for pollutants averaged over the day of death and the preceding 2 days, for deaths from respiratory diseases was MPC(COH)=6.90% (95% CI: 3.69-10.21%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)= 9.03% (95% CI: 5.83- 12.33%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.64% (95% CI: 2.46-6.86%). For diabetes, the corresponding estimates were MPC(COH)=7.50% (95% CI: 1.96-13.34%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)=7.59% (95% CI: 2.36-13.09%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.48% (95% CI: 1.08-7.99%). Among individuals older than 65 years at time of death, we found consistent associations across our metrics of particles for neoplasms and coronary artery diseases. Associations with sulfate mass were also found among elderly persons who died of cardiovascular diseases and of lung cancer. These associations were consistent with linear relationships. The associations found for respiratory diseases and for cardiovascular diseases, especially in the elderly, are in line with some of the current hypotheses regarding mechanisms by which ambient particles may increase daily mortality. The positive associations found for cancer and for diabetes may be understood through a general hypothesis proposed by Frank and Tankersley, who suggested that persons in failing health may be at higher risk for external insults through the failure of regulating physiological set points. The association with diabetes may be interpreted in light of recent toxicological findings that inhalation of urban particles in animals increases blood pressure and plasmatic levels of endothelins that enhance vasoconstriction and alter electrophysiology. Further research to confirm these findings and to determine whether they are causal is warranted.
PubMed ID
11386738 View in PubMed
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Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193360
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Aug;109 Suppl 4:487-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J C Bailar
R. Tamblyn
P. Ernst
K. Flegel
J. Brook
Y. Bonvalot
R. Singh
M F Valois
R. Vincent
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Aug;109 Suppl 4:487-94
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Coronary Disease - chemically induced - mortality
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Heart Failure - chemically induced - mortality
Humans
Medical Records - statistics & numerical data
Quebec - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Risk factors
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine particles and sulfates from a fine particles model for days that were missing. We used the universal Quebec medicare system to obtain billings and prescriptions for each Montreal resident who died in the city from 1984 to 1993. These data were then used to define cardiovascular and respiratory conditions that subjects had before death. Using standard Poisson regression time-series analyses, we estimated the association between daily nonaccidental mortality and daily concentrations of particles in the ambient air among persons with cardiovascular and respiratory conditions diagnosed before death. We found no persuasive evidence that daily mortality increased when ambient air particles were elevated for subgroups of persons with chronic upper respiratory diseases, airways disease, cerebrovascular diseases, acute coronary artery disease, and hypertension. However, we found that daily mortality increased linearly as concentrations of particles increased for persons who had acute lower respiratory diseases, chronic coronary artery diseases (especially in the elderly), and congestive heart failure. For this latter set of conditions, the mean percent increase in daily mortality (MPC) for an increase in the COH across its interquartile range (18.5 COH units per 327.8 linear meters), averaged over the day of death and the 2 preceding days, was MPC = 5.09% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.47-7.79%], MPC = 2.62 (95% CI 0.53-4.75%), and MPC = 4.99 (95% CI 2.44-7.60%), respectively. Adjustments for gaseous pollutants generally attenuated these associations, although the general pattern of increased daily mortality remained. In addition, there appeared to be a stronger association in the summer season. The positive associations found for persons who had acute lower respiratory diseases and congestive heart failure are consistent with some prevailing hypotheses and may also be consistent with recent toxicologic data implicating endothelins. Further epidemiologic studies are required to confirm these findings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
11544152 View in PubMed
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