Review on the problem of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the population in the Siberian Federal District (SFD) was conducted based on literature data and authors own research in the period of 2002-2014. Authors provided broad information on the health and demographic and epidemiological characteristics of SFD population. SFD in comparison with other regions of the Russian Federation overcomes one of the most adverse situations including mortality rates from external causes. SFD population’s infectious and somatic morbidity rates were analyzed. Analysis demonstrated that the situation relating to priority epidemiologically and socially important infections (HIV-infection, parenteral viral hepatitis, tuberculosis etc.) on the territory of the SFD remains tense. Authors provided information on the increase in the level of the actual for Siberian regions natural-foci tick-borne infections. Detailed analysis for the environment anthropogenic pollution impact for the epidemic, infectious and vaccine induced processes. Authors suggest that anthropogenic (biological) environmental pollution is one of the most important factors influencing the epidemiological welfare of the Siberian population. A new strategic direction in epidemiological research associated with the problem of comorbid diseases is planned.
The health status (somatic and reproductive functions) was studied in 15-17-year-old girls residing in different areas of an industrial city with varying anthropogenic loads mainly caused by chemicals. There were statistically significant differences in the health indices of the girls and their reproductive functions (menstrual function, development of genitals, the status of the viscera).
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
In 2007 the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) decided to establish a nationwide system for point-prevalence surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) among hospitalized patients. Surveillance started in 2008 and has since then been performed twice a year (April and October). The documentation of HCAIs is performed by regular clinical physicians and nurses on each hospital ward aided by oral and written instructions. All Swedish publicly financed hospitals (>95% of all hospitals) are included (25,862 beds in 2008 and 24,905 beds in 2013). A total of 88-92% of all inpatients has been covered in each survey. The overall prevalence of HCAI (including psychiatric inpatients) has ranged from 7.8% to 10.0%.
In 2012 SALAR decided to assess the reliability of the prevalence data.
In all, 1216 patients were assessed for HCAIs by both the regular surveillance teams and teams with expert knowledge on HCAI independently of each other.
The prevalence of HCAI was 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-9.9) according to the regular teams and 13.1% (11.2-15.0) according to the expert teams. The sensitivity of the regular point-prevalence surveillance was 47% and the specificity 97%.
The Swedish system for repeated nationwide point-prevalence surveillance of HCAI has had a high coverage of about 90% since it commenced. However, the surveys underestimate the true prevalence of HCAI.
The system of indication ofbiological pathogens that exists in our country allows to implement efficacious monitoring of epidemiologic situation, timely detect causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases in material from humans and environmental samples, conduct their detailed identification and take appropriate means to ensure biosafety of the Russian Federation.