Review on the problem of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the population in the Siberian Federal District (SFD) was conducted based on literature data and authors own research in the period of 2002-2014. Authors provided broad information on the health and demographic and epidemiological characteristics of SFD population. SFD in comparison with other regions of the Russian Federation overcomes one of the most adverse situations including mortality rates from external causes. SFD population’s infectious and somatic morbidity rates were analyzed. Analysis demonstrated that the situation relating to priority epidemiologically and socially important infections (HIV-infection, parenteral viral hepatitis, tuberculosis etc.) on the territory of the SFD remains tense. Authors provided information on the increase in the level of the actual for Siberian regions natural-foci tick-borne infections. Detailed analysis for the environment anthropogenic pollution impact for the epidemic, infectious and vaccine induced processes. Authors suggest that anthropogenic (biological) environmental pollution is one of the most important factors influencing the epidemiological welfare of the Siberian population. A new strategic direction in epidemiological research associated with the problem of comorbid diseases is planned.
The health status (somatic and reproductive functions) was studied in 15-17-year-old girls residing in different areas of an industrial city with varying anthropogenic loads mainly caused by chemicals. There were statistically significant differences in the health indices of the girls and their reproductive functions (menstrual function, development of genitals, the status of the viscera).
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
In 2007 the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) decided to establish a nationwide system for point-prevalence surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) among hospitalized patients. Surveillance started in 2008 and has since then been performed twice a year (April and October). The documentation of HCAIs is performed by regular clinical physicians and nurses on each hospital ward aided by oral and written instructions. All Swedish publicly financed hospitals (>95% of all hospitals) are included (25,862 beds in 2008 and 24,905 beds in 2013). A total of 88-92% of all inpatients has been covered in each survey. The overall prevalence of HCAI (including psychiatric inpatients) has ranged from 7.8% to 10.0%.
In 2012 SALAR decided to assess the reliability of the prevalence data.
In all, 1216 patients were assessed for HCAIs by both the regular surveillance teams and teams with expert knowledge on HCAI independently of each other.
The prevalence of HCAI was 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-9.9) according to the regular teams and 13.1% (11.2-15.0) according to the expert teams. The sensitivity of the regular point-prevalence surveillance was 47% and the specificity 97%.
The Swedish system for repeated nationwide point-prevalence surveillance of HCAI has had a high coverage of about 90% since it commenced. However, the surveys underestimate the true prevalence of HCAI.
This study was undertaken to determine whether variations in concentrations of particles in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984 to 1993, were associated with daily variations in nonaccidental mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We estimated associations for PM(2.5), PM(10), total suspended particles, coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and sulfates. We used coefficient of haze, extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine particles and sulfates for days that were missing. To estimate the associations between nonaccidental mortality and ambient air particles, we regressed the logarithm of daily counts of nonaccidental mortality on the daily mean levels for the above measures of particulates, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and gaseous pollutants. There were 140,939 residents of Montreal who died during the study period. We found evidence of associations between daily nonaccidental deaths and most measures of particulate air pollution. For example, the mean percentage increase (MPC) for an increase of total suspended particles of 28.57 microg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQ), evaluated at lag 0 days, was 1.86% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.00-3.76%), and for an increase of coefficient of haze (IQ=18.5 COH units per 327.8 linear m) the MPC was 1.44% (95% CI: 0.75-2.14%). These results are similar to findings from other studies (the mean percentage increase in nonaccidental deaths for a 100 microg/m(3) increase in daily total suspended particles was 6.7%). We also found increases for fine particles and for inhalable particles, but the confidence intervals included unity. All measures of sulfates showed increased daily mortality; e.g., the MPC for sulfates from fine particles (IQ=3.51 microg/m(3)) was 1.86% (95% CI: 0.40-3.35%). We generally found higher excesses in daily mortality for persons 65 years of age and for exposures averaged across lags 0, 1, and 2 days. The slope of the association between daily mortality and ambient air particles in Montreal, which has lower levels of pollution than most major urban centers, is similar to that reported in most other industrialized cities. This study therefore provides further evidence that the association is linear and that any threshold effect, should it exist, would be found at lower levels of air pollution than those found in Montreal.