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The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137011
Source
Malar J. 2011;10(1):43
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Lena Hulden
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland. lena.hulden@helsinki.fi
Source
Malar J. 2011;10(1):43
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anopheles - parasitology
Antimalarials - history
Epidemics - history
Female
Finland
History, 18th Century
Humans
Malaria - epidemiology - history
Parasitology - history
Sweden
Abstract
After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21324104 View in PubMed
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The ghost of pandemics past: revisiting two centuries of influenza in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290970
Source
Med Humanit. 2017 Sep; 43(3):141-147
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Martin Holmberg
Source
Med Humanit. 2017 Sep; 43(3):141-147
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Epidemics - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - history
Military Personnel
Pandemics - history
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Previous influenza pandemics are usually invoked in pandemic preparedness planning without a thorough analysis of the events surrounding them, what has been called the 'configuration' of epidemics. Historic pandemics are instead used to contrast them to the novelty of the coming imagined plague or as fear of a ghost-like repetition of the past. This view of pandemics is guided by a biomedical framework that is ahistorical and reductionist. The meaning of 'pandemic' influenza is in fact highly ambiguous in its partitioning of pandemic and seasonal influenza. The past 200 years of influenza epidemics in Sweden are examined with a special focus on key social structures-households, schools, transportations and the military. These are shown to have influenced the progression of influenza pandemics. Prevailing beliefs around influenza pandemics have also profoundly influenced intervention strategies. Measuring long-term trends in pandemic severity is problematic because pandemics are non-linear events where the conditions surrounding them constantly change. However, in a linearised view, the Spanish flu can be seen to represent a historical turning point and the H1N1 2009 pandemic not as an outlier, but following a 100-year trend of decreasing severity. Integrating seasonal and pandemic influenza, and adopting an ecosocial stance can deepen our understanding and bring the ghost-like pandemic past to life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28855380 View in PubMed
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[Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272632
Source
Dan Medicinhist Arbog. 2015;Suppl:7-122
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Anders Frøland
Source
Dan Medicinhist Arbog. 2015;Suppl:7-122
Date
2015
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic
Denmark
Epidemics - history
Greek World
History, Ancient
Manuscripts, Medical
Translations
Abstract
The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded.
PubMed ID
27078984 View in PubMed
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Local epidemic history as a predictor of tuberculosis incidence in Saskatchewan Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133628
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Jul;15(7):899-905
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
C. Pepperell
A H Chang
W. Wobeser
J. Parsonnet
V H Hoeppner
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5323, USA. pepperc@stanford.edu
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Jul;15(7):899-905
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Cohort Studies
Epidemics - history
Female
Genotype
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American - history - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - genetics - isolation & purification
Retrospective Studies
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - ethnology - history
Young Adult
Abstract
Average tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates are high in Canadian Aboriginal communities, but there is significant variability within this group.
To determine whether local history of post-contact TB epidemics is predictive of contemporary epidemiology among Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada.
TB incidence, age-specific morbidity patterns and rates of clustering of TB genotypes from 1986 to 2004 were compared between two groups of communities: Group 1, in which post-contact epidemics of TB were established around 1870, and Group 2, in which they were delayed until after 1920. Concomitant effects of socio-economic and geographic variables were explored with multivariate models.
Group 2 communities were characterized by higher annual incidence of TB (median 431 per 100,000 population vs. 38/100,000). In multivariate models that included socio-economic and geographic variables, historical grouping remained a significant independent predictor of community incidence of TB. Clustering of TB genotypes was associated with Group 2 (OR 8.7, 95%CI 3.3-22.7) and age 10-34 years (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1-5.7).
TB transmission dynamics can vary significantly as a function of a population's historical experience with TB. Populations at different stages along the epidemic trajectory may be amenable to different types of interventions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21682962 View in PubMed
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[Spotted typhoid fever in the Iceland of the sagas?].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128765
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Dec 13;131(24):2504-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-13-2011
Author
Per Holck
Author Affiliation
Institutt for medisinske basalfag, Avdeling for anatomi, Universitetet i Oslo, Norway. per.holck@medisin.uio.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Dec 13;131(24):2504-6
Date
Dec-13-2011
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Epidemics - history
History, Medieval
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Literature, Medieval
Medicine in Literature
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne - epidemiology - history - pathology
Abstract
In spite of Iceland's geographically isolated position, epidemics of infectious diseases obviously occurred from the very beginning, brought to the island by the first Norwegian settlers and their cattle in the 9th century. People living close together in small farming communities were of course exposed to infection, which must have been common in the narrow Icelandic farmhouses. People had very little understanding or knowledge of protection against contagion, and the whole family, often sleeping together in the same bed, would be an easy prey to contagion. Epidemics were often regarded as caused by supernatural, evil forces, and two of the Icelandic sagas in particular - Grette's Saga and the Eyrbyggja Saga - give an account that may well be the first ever description of an epidemic, perhaps of spotted typhoid fever, in the history of medicine. In these sagas, the accounts are presented as ghost stories. The disease is caused by the faeces of infected lice, and leads to severe haemorrages in the skin and intestine. It also affects the central nervous system and has a high mortality rate.
PubMed ID
22170143 View in PubMed
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Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS: the alien and the predator.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295040
Source
Lancet. 2017 Sep 30; 390(10102):1618-1619
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Sep-30-2017
Author
Vadim Pokrovsky
Author Affiliation
Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, The Federal Service on Customers' Rights Protection and Human Well-being Surveillance, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: pokrovsky.vad@yandex.ru.
Source
Lancet. 2017 Sep 30; 390(10102):1618-1619
Date
Sep-30-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - history - prevention & control
Epidemics - history - prevention & control
Forecasting
HIV Infections - history - prevention & control
Health Policy - history - trends
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Russia
Tuberculosis - history - prevention & control
PubMed ID
28980964 View in PubMed
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A victory over the plague in Moscow 1770-1772.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264519
Source
Vesalius. 2013 Jun;19(1):11-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Tatiana Sorokina
Source
Vesalius. 2013 Jun;19(1):11-8
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Epidemics - history - prevention & control
History, 18th Century
Moscow
Plague - epidemiology - history - prevention & control
Abstract
The Great Plague in Moscow 1770-1772 was suppressed in four months due to the strict and effective administrative measures and outstanding efforts of the doctors in Moscow. For many decades of the previous century the role of the Russian nobility in this victory was "forgotten". In this paper, based on the original documents published just after the Plague in 1775, a real historical picture of that Great Victory has been reconstructed. Many errors and inaccuracies in our historical-medical literature have been corrected and the forgotten role of the Russian nobility in suppressing this serious epidemic has been resurrected. This includes the role of the Senate, the Empress Catherine the Great and Count Gregory Orlov who had been sent by her to Moscow with unlimited power "to put everything in due order", as well as contribution of the Russian scientists in the worldwide struggle against plague.
PubMed ID
26050284 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.