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Abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line sites in the Western James region of Northern Ontario, Canada: a source of organochlorines for First Nations people?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80754
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2006
Author
Tsuji Leonard J S
Wainman Bruce C
Martin Ian D
Weber Jean-Philippe
Sutherland Celine
Nieboer Evert
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. ljtsuji@2fes.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Date
Nov-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Animals
Birds
Diet
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Hazardous Waste
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Male
Mammals
Ontario
Abstract
The potential exists for human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants originating from abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line (MCRL) sites in sub-arctic Canada. We examined patterns of differences with respect to body burden of organochlorines (lipid-adjusted) between residents of the Ontario First Nations of Fort Albany (the site of MCRL Site 050) and Kashechewan (no radar base) and Hamilton (an industrial, southern Ontario community) to assess whether the presence of Site 050 influenced organochlorine body burden with respect to the people of Fort Albany. PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and summation operator14 PCBs congeners [CBs]) and DDE in the plasma of Fort Albany and Kashechewan subjects were elevated relative to Hamilton participants. PCB and DDE-plasma levels in First Nation women were of comparable magnitude to those reported for Inuit women living in the west/central Northwest Territories. Significantly lower DDE/DDT ratios observed for Fort Albany indicates exposure to higher levels of DDT compared to Kashechewan. The probable source of DDT exposure for Fort Albany people is the DDT-contaminated soil surrounding buildings of Site 050. The results of the correspondence analysis (CA) indicated that people from Hamilton had relatively higher pesticides and lower CB body burdens, while people from Fort Albany and Kashechewan exhibited relatively higher CBs and lower pesticide levels (CA-1). The separation of Fort Albany and Kashechewan from Hamilton was also clear using questionnaire data (i.e., plotting dietary principal component [PC]-1 scores against PC-2); PC-1 was correlated with the consumption of a traditional diet. Separation of Kashechewan and Albany residents occurred because the people of Kashechewan ate more traditional meats and consumed shorebirds. Only one significant relationship was found between PC analysis and contaminant loadings; PC-1 versus CA-3 for Kashechewan. The presence of Site 050 on Anderson Island appears to have influenced organochlorine body burden of the people of Fort Albany. ANCOVA results revealed that it was not activity on Anderson Island that was important, but activity on Site 050 was the influential variable. When these results are considered with the DDE/DDT ratio data and the CB 187 results (Fort Albany and Kashechewan residents differed significantly), the findings are suggestive that Site 050 did influence organochlorine body burden of people from Fort Albany.
PubMed ID
16959301 View in PubMed
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Adiposity and glycemic control in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104801
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):E608-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Clara Amalie G Timmermann
Laura I Rossing
Anders Grøntved
Mathias Ried-Larsen
Christine Dalgård
Lars B Andersen
Philippe Grandjean
Flemming Nielsen
Kira D Svendsen
Thomas Scheike
Tina K Jensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health (C.A.G.T., L.I.R., C.D., P.G., F.N., T.K.J.), and Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics (A.G., M.R.-L., L.B.A.), University of Southern Denmark, 5000 Odense C, Denmark; and Department of Biostatistics (K.D.S., T.S.), University of Copenhagen, 1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):E608-14
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - drug effects - physiology
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Blood Glucose - drug effects - metabolism
Body mass index
Caprylates - blood
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - toxicity
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Obesity - blood - epidemiology
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control.
Body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed in 8- to 10-year-old children in 1997 in a subset of the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component. Plasma PFC concentrations were available from 499 children. Linear regression models were performed to determine the association between PFC exposure and indicators of adiposity and markers of glycemic control.
There was no association between PFC exposures and adiposity or markers of glycemic control in normal-weight children. Among overweight children, an increase of 10 ng perfluorooctane sulfonic acid/mL plasma was associated with 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-28.3%) higher insulin concentration, 12.0% (95% CI, 2.4%-22.4%) higher ß-cell activity, 17.6% (95% CI, 5.8%-30.8%) higher insulin resistance, and 8.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-16.5%) higher triglyceride concentrations, and an increase of 10 ng perfluorooctanoic acid/mL plasma was associated with 71.6% (95% CI, 2.4%-187.5%) higher insulin concentration, 67.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-166.0%) higher ß-cell function, 73.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-202.0%) higher insulin resistance, and 76.2% (95% CI, 22.8%-153.0%) higher triglyceride concentrations.
Increased PFC exposure in overweight 8- to 10-year-old children was associated with higher insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Chance findings may explain some of our results, and due to the cross-sectional design, reverse causation cannot be excluded. The findings therefore need to be confirmed in longitudinal studies.
PubMed ID
24606078 View in PubMed
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Analysis of HO-PCBs and PCP in blood plasma from individuals with high PCB exposure living on the Chukotka Peninsula in the Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178566
Source
J Environ Monit. 2004 Sep;6(9):758-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Torkjel M Sandanger
Pierre Dumas
Urs Berger
Ivan C Burkow
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, 9296 Tromso, Norway. torkjel.sandanger@nilu.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2004 Sep;6(9):758-65
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Humans
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - chemistry
Russia
Abstract
A trace analytical method is presented for the analysis of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (HO-PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human plasma. The described methodology is a modification of a previously validated method used for PCB and organochlorine pesticide analysis. The modified method enables the combined analysis of phenolic and neutral halogenated compounds. A tandem Florisil column is used for separating the HO-PCBs and PCP from the neutral fraction, instead of the more common chemical partitioning. In the same step the neutral fraction is purified for GC analysis. The extraction of the HO-PCBs and PCP was found to be highly dependent on sufficient acidification of the sample and the polarity of the extracting solvent. Analysis of plasma samples gave recovery rates for (13)C(6)-PCP and (13)C(12)-4-HO-CB 187 of 64 and 72%, respectively. The limit of detection ranged between 2-20 pg g(-1) plasma for the HO-PCBs and 5 pg g(-1) plasma for PCP. No matrix interferences were observed in the chromatograms. In plasma samples (n = 15) from the native Chukchi people in Uelen (Russian Arctic), a population with high PCB exposure, the median ratio of sum HO-PCBs to sum PCBs was as high as 0.4 and the sum HO-PCBs and PCBs were significantly correlated (r(2) > 0.7, p
PubMed ID
15346180 View in PubMed
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Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6761
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
C D Sandau
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
J. Duffe
R J Norstrom
Author Affiliation
Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Hydroxylation
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
In this study, we identified the main hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds and we determined their relative concentrations in whole blood from 13 male and 17 female Inuit from northern Quebec, Canada, and from a pooled whole blood sample from southern Quebec. We also determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Total OH-PCB concentrations were variable among the Inuit samples, ranging over 2 orders of magnitude (0.117-11.6 ng/g whole blood wet weight). These concentrations were equal to and up to 70 times those found for the southern Quebec pooled whole blood sample. Geometric mean concentrations of total OH-PCBs were 1.73 and 1.01 ng/g whole blood for Inuit men and women, respectively, and 0.161 ng/g whole blood for the southern population pool. There are limited data available for comparison, but the levels of OH-PCBs in Inuit are higher than those previously reported in the literature for other populations. There was a significant correlation (p
PubMed ID
10903613 View in PubMed
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Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length as a modifier of the association between persistent organohalogen pollutant exposure markers and semen characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77700
Source
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jun;17(6):391-401
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Giwercman Aleksander
Rylander Lars
Rignell-Hydbom Anna
Jönsson Bo A G
Pedersen Henning S
Ludwicki Jan K
Lesovoy Vladimir
Zvyezday Valentyna
Spano Marcello
Manicardi Gian-Carlo
Bizzaro Davide
Bonefeld-Jørgensen Eva C
Toft Gunnar
Bonde Jens Peter
Giwercman Charlotte
Tiido Tarmo
Giwercman Yvonne Lundberg
Author Affiliation
Molecular Reproductive Medicine Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Reproductive Medicine Centre, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. aleksander.giwercman@med.lu.se
Source
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jun;17(6):391-401
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
DNA Fragmentation - drug effects
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood - toxicity
Endocrine Disruptors - blood - toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - toxicity
Male
Minisatellite Repeats
Pharmacogenetics
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Polymorphism, Genetic
Receptors, Androgen - genetics
Semen - drug effects - metabolism
Sperm Count
Trinucleotide Repeats
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants was suggested to impair male reproductive function. A gene-environment interaction has been proposed. No genes modifying the effect of persistent organohalogen pollutants on reproductive organs have yet been identified. We aimed to investigate whether the CAG and GGN polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene modify the effect of persistent organohalogen pollutant exposure on human sperm characteristics. METHODS: Semen and blood from 680 men [mean (SD) age 34 (10) years] from Greenland, Sweden, Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were collected. Persistent organohalogen pollutant exposure was assessed by measuring serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE). Semen characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, total count, proportion of progressively motile and morphology) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were determined. CAG and GGN repeat lengths were determined by direct sequencing of leukocyte DNA. RESULTS: A statistically significant interaction was found between the CB-153 group and CAG repeat category in relation to sperm concentration and total sperm count (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively). For p,p'-DDE, in the European cohorts a significant interaction was found in relation to DFI (P=0.01). For CAG
PubMed ID
17502831 View in PubMed
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An examination of traditional foods and cigarette smoking as cadmium sources among the nine First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, Northern Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104372
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 May 28;16(6):1422-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-28-2014
Author
Nadia A Charania
Leonard J S Tsuji
Ian D Martin
Eric N Liberda
Suzanne Coté
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Evert Nieboer
Author Affiliation
Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 May 28;16(6):1422-33
Date
May-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cadmium - blood
Child
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Smoking - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p
PubMed ID
24781002 View in PubMed
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An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123494
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Erik Lampa
Lars Lind
Anna Bornefalk Hermansson
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
P Monica Lind
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. erik.lampa@medsci.uu.se
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Benzhydryl Compounds
Biological Markers - blood
Child
Chlorine Compounds - blood
Cluster analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Pesticides - blood
Phenols - blood
Phthalic Acids - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Principal Component Analysis
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (=6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (=6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.
PubMed ID
22692364 View in PubMed
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Anti-parasite treatment removes negative effects of environmental pollutants on reproduction in an Arctic seabird.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80426
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2006 Dec 22;273(1605):3117-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-22-2006
Author
Bustnes Jan O
Erikstad Kjell E
Hanssen Sveinn A
Tveraa Torkild
Folstad Ivar
Skaare Janncehe U
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway. jan.o.bustnes@nina.no
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2006 Dec 22;273(1605):3117-22
Date
Dec-22-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anthelmintics - pharmacology
Arctic Regions
Breeding
Charadriiformes - parasitology - physiology
Chlordan - analogs & derivatives - blood
Clutch Size - drug effects
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Hexachlorobenzene - blood
Homing Behavior - drug effects
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Male
Nesting Behavior - drug effects
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Reproduction - drug effects
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollutants may be worse if organisms are exposed to natural stress. In this study, we examined whether negative effects of organochlorines (OCs) could be influenced by parasites. In two breeding seasons, we administered an anti-helminthic drug to groups of breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), whereas control groups were placebo treated. In all birds, blood residues of the most important OCs in the study population (hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and polychlorinated biphenyl), were measured. The relationships between OCs and fitness components (i.e. nesting success and return rate between breeding seasons) were then compared between the birds receiving anti-parasite treatment and the controls. Among untreated males, higher blood residues of OCs were associated with lowered nesting success, while in males receiving anti-parasite treatment, there was no detrimental effect of OCs on fitness. Return rate was not affected by treatment or OCs. Our findings suggest that parasites may be an important factor in triggering reproductive effects of such pollutants, and that relatively low levels of OCs may have serious reproductive consequences in natural populations when stress from other sources is high.
PubMed ID
17015342 View in PubMed
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Assessing the relationship between perfluoroalkyl substances, thyroid hormones and binding proteins in pregnant women; a longitudinal mixed effects approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268360
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Apr;77:63-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Vivian Berg
Therese Haugdahl Nøst
Solrunn Hansen
Astrid Elverland
Anna-Sofía Veyhe
Rolf Jorde
Jon Øyvind Odland
Torkjel Manning Sandanger
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Apr;77:63-9
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Carrier Proteins - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Linear Models
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Second - blood
Thyroid Hormones - blood
Thyrotropin - blood
Abstract
The mechanisms involved in thyroid homeostasis are complex, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been indicated to interfere at several levels in this endocrine system. Disruption of the maternal thyroid homeostasis during early pregnancy is of particular concern, where subclinical changes in maternal thyroid hormones (THs) may affect embryonic and foetal development. The present study investigated associations between THs, thyroid binding proteins (TH-BPs) and PFAS concentrations in pregnant women from Northern Norway. Women participating in The Northern Norway Mother-and-Child contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) donated a blood sample at three visits related to their pregnancy and postpartum period (during the second trimester, 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery) in the period 2007-2009. Participants were assigned to quartiles according to PFAS concentrations during the second trimester and mixed effects linear models were used to investigate potential associations between PFASs and repeated measurements of THs, TH-BPs, thyroxin binding capacity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPOs). Women within the highest perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) quartile had 24% higher mean concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) compared to the first quartile at all sampling points. Women within the highest quartiles of perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) had 4% lower mean concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and women within the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) had 3% lower mean concentrations of free triiodothyronine (FT3). Further, the difference in concentrations and the changes between three time points were the same for the PFAS quartiles. Thyroxin binding capacity was associated with all the THs and TH-BPs, and was selected as a holistic adjustment for individual changes in TH homeostasis during pregnancy. Finally, adjusting for maternal iodine status did not influence the model predictions. Findings in the present study suggest modifications of TH homeostasis by PFASs in a background exposed maternal population. The variation in levels of THs between PFAS quartiles was within normal reference ranges and may not be of clinical significance in the pregnant woman. However, subtle individual changes in maternal THs may have significant consequences for foetal health.
PubMed ID
25647630 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the levels of hexachlorocyclohexane in blood samples from Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125380
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012 Jun;88(6):833-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Antonio Trejo-Acevedo
Norma Edith Rivero-Pérez
Rogelio Flores-Ramirez
Sandra Teresa Orta-García
Lucia Guadalupe Pruneda-Álvarez
Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
Author Affiliation
Departamento Toxicología Ambiental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Avenida Venustiano Carranza No. 2405, Col Lomas los Filtros, 78210, San Luis Potosi, SLP, Mexico.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012 Jun;88(6):833-7
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Lindane - blood
Male
Mexico
Pesticides - blood
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) exposure in children living in nine hot spots in four Mexican states. We analyzed HCH (a, ß, and ?-isomers) in blood using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. HCH exposure level in 261 children was assessed and approximately 75 % of the children studied had detectable levels of HCH. These levels ranged from 188 to 40,096.7 ng/g lipid. The highest mean levels were found in Lacanja (5,446.9 ng/g lipid), an indigenous community in Chiapas, Mexico. Our data indicate high exposure to HCH in children living in these communities.
PubMed ID
22487962 View in PubMed
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212 records – page 1 of 22.