Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Remote Sensing Big Data Application, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Karst Environment, School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25?km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself. Crevassing and supraglacial water also drive albedo reduction but due to their limited extent, explain just 12 and 15% of the observed variability respectively. Cryoconite, concentrated in large holes or fluvial deposits, is the darkest surface type but accounts for
This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems.
The isotopic composition of Pb was determined in Finnish peat bogs and their porewaters from Harjavalta (HAR, near a Cu-Ni smelter), Outokumpu (OUT, near a Cu-Ni mine), and Hietajärvi (HIJ, a background site). At HIJ and OUT, the porewaters yielded similar concentrations (0.1-0.7 µg/L) and isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.154-1.164). In contrast, the peat profile from HAR yielded greater concentrations of Pb in the porewaters (average 2.4 µg/L), and the Pb is less radiogenic ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.121-1.149). Acidification of the bog surface waters to pH 3.5 by SO2 emitted from smelting (compared to pH 4.0 at the control site) apparently promotes the dissolution of Pb-bearing aerosols, as well as desorption of metals from the surfaces of these particles and from the peat matrix. Despite this, the chronology of anthropogenic, atmospheric deposition for the past millenium recorded by the isotopic composition of Pb in all three peat bogs is remarkably similar. While the immobility of Pb in the peat cores may appear inconsistent with the elevated porewater Pb concentrations, Pb concentrations in the aqueous phase never amount to more than 0.01% of the total Pb at any given depth so that the potential for migration remains small. The low rates of vertical water movement in bogs generally combined with the size of the metal-containing particles in solution may be additional factors limiting Pb mobilization.
Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multispecies occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real data set of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, USA, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results indicate that neglecting the effects of site covariates on species detection probabilities may lead to significant bias in estimation of species richness, as well as the inferred relationships between community size and environmental covariates.
Recent mild and wet years in Sweden were compared with long observation series of temperature, precipitation and runoff. Spatial average series for northern and southern Sweden were constructed and analyzed for the period 1901-2002. Precipitation increased considerably during the period, whereas temperature and runoff increases were weaker. On average, for the whole country, the differences between the period 1991-2002 and 1901-1990 were +0.7 degrees C for temperature, +11% in precipitation and +7% in runoff. The differences in temperature and precipitation, but not runoff, were significant at the 5% level. However, the 1930s were equally mild, and the runoff was almost as high in the 1920s. The characteristic feature of the past decade is the combination of high temperature, precipitation and runoff. The deviation between the most recent decade and the preceding years is consistent with climate scenario projections for Sweden, but there are also differences in the seasonal pattern.
Temporal trends of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were analyzed in three sediment cores collected near different potential CP sources along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. C8-C36 CPs were found in sediment dating back to the 1930s. The maximum CP concentrations found in proximity to a metropolitan sewage treatment plant, a wood-related industrial area, and a steel factory were 48, 160, and 1400 ng/g d.w., respectively, in sediment sections dated from the early 1990s or the 2000s. The temporal trends agree with statistics on CP importation in Sweden or local industrial activities. MCCPs (C14-C17 CPs) and LCCPs (C=18 CPs) predominated in most sediments with average percentage compositions of 47 ± 20% and 37 ± 20%, respectively. Concentrations of SCCPs in the three cores showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The temporal trends of MCCPs indicated that these are currently the predominant CPs in use. This study showed for the first time that LCCPs from C18 to C36, as well as C8-C17 CPs, are persistent in sediments over the last 50-80 years, indicating that CPs are persistent chemicals regardless of alkane-chain lengths.
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is deposited to Polar Regions during springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) that require halogens and snow or ice surfaces. The fate of this Hg during and following snowmelt is largely unknown. We measured Hg, major ions, and stable water isotopes from the snowpack through the entire spring melt runoff period for two years. Our small (2.5 ha) watershed is near Barrow (now Utqiagvik), Alaska. We measured discharge, made 10?000 snow depths, and collected over 100 samples of snow and meltwater for chemical analysis in 2008 and 2009 from the watershed snowpack and ephemeral stream channel. Results show an "ionic pulse" of mercury and major ions in runoff during both snowmelt seasons, but major ion and Hg runoff concentrations were roughly 50% higher in 2008 than in 2009. Though total discharge as a percent of total watershed snowpack water equivalent prior to the melt was similar in both years (36% in 2008 melt runoff and 34% in 2009), it is possible that record low precipitation in the summer of 2007 led to the higher major ion and Hg concentrations in 2008 melt runoff. Total dissolved Hg meltwater runoff of 14.3 (± 0.7) mg/ha in 2008 and 8.1 (± 0.4) mg/ha in 2009 is five to seven times higher than that reported from other arctic watersheds. We calculate 78% of snowpack Hg was exported with snowmelt runoff in 2008 and 41% in 2009. Our results suggest AMDE Hg complexed with Cl- or Br- may be less likely to be photochemically reduced and re-emitted to the atmosphere prior to snowmelt, and we estimate that roughly 25% of the Hg in snowmelt is attributable to AMDEs. Projected Arctic warming, with more open sea ice leads providing halogen sources that promote AMDEs, may provide enhanced Hg deposition, reduced Hg emission and, ultimately, an increase in snowpack and snowmelt runoff Hg concentrations.
Biomonitoring of pesticide residues in urine offers the advantages of integrating exposure due to all routes of entry and accounting for individual differences in several factors such as pharmacokinetics. The study was designed to measure the body burden of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in farm applicators and to measure compliance with label recommendations regarding the use of personal protective gear and the impact of such use on exposure.
Farmers (N=126) from Ontario, Canada, collected a preexposure spot sample of urine and then two consecutive 24-hour urine samples immediately following the farmers' first use of these herbicides during 1996. Details on the pesticides used and handling practices were collected by questionnaire.
For the farmers who reported using 2,4-D, the mean urinary concentration was 27.6 microg/l in the day-1 sample and 40.8 microg/l in the day-2 sample. The comparable figures for MCPA were 44.4 microg/l and 58.0 microg/l, respectively. Adherence to all of the recommended personal protective gear was rare (3%). Wearing goggles or a face shield during mixing and loading was associated with the lowest exposures.
The urinary concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA of these farm applicators were of the same order of magnitude as those published in the past decade, but lower than earlier studies, indicating that improvements in education, equipment, and labeling have likely had an impact on the degree of exposure in occupational settings.