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2677 records – page 1 of 268.

Transport expansion threatens the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290048
Source
Science. 2018 02 09; 359(6376):646-647
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Date
02-09-2018
Author
Hong Yang
Mingguo Ma
Julian R Thompson
Roger J Flower
Author Affiliation
Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Remote Sensing Big Data Application, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Karst Environment, School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China. hongyanghy@gmail.com.
Source
Science. 2018 02 09; 359(6376):646-647
Date
02-09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Notes
CommentOn: Science. 2017 Oct 27;358(6362):442-444 PMID 29074751
PubMed ID
29439236 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dark zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet controlled by distributed biologically-active impurities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291280
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 03 14; 9(1):1065
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-14-2018
Author
Jonathan C Ryan
Alun Hubbard
Marek Stibal
Tristram D Irvine-Fynn
Joseph Cook
Laurence C Smith
Karen Cameron
Jason Box
Author Affiliation
Centre for Glaciology, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, UK.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 03 14; 9(1):1065
Date
03-14-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Greenland
Ice Cover
Abstract
Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25?km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself. Crevassing and supraglacial water also drive albedo reduction but due to their limited extent, explain just 12 and 15% of the observed variability respectively. Cryoconite, concentrated in large holes or fluvial deposits, is the darkest surface type but accounts for
Notes
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PubMed ID
29540720 View in PubMed
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Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95556
Source
J Environ Manage. 2009 May;90(7):2226-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Bartsch A.
Wagner W.
Scipal K.
Pathe C.
Sabel D.
Wolski P.
Author Affiliation
Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, Vienna, Austria. ab@ipf.tuwien.ac.at
Source
J Environ Manage. 2009 May;90(7):2226-33
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Satellite Communications
Wetlands
Abstract
This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems.
PubMed ID
18343560 View in PubMed
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[Experience of the state sanitary and epidemiological service in developing and implementing special programs].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187391
Source
Gig Sanit. 2002 Sep-Oct;(5):77-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A I Neplokhov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2002 Sep-Oct;(5):77-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Health promotion
Humans
Russia
PubMed ID
12476849 View in PubMed
Less detail

Isotopic Composition of Pb in Peat and Porewaters from Three Contrasting Ombrotrophic Bogs in Finland: Evidence of Chemical Diagenesis in Response to Acidification.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283244
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Sep 20;50(18):9943-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-20-2016
Author
William Shotyk
Nicole Rausch
Tiina M Nieminen
Liisa Ukonmaanaho
Michael Krachler
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Sep 20;50(18):9943-51
Date
Sep-20-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Finland
Lead
Soil
Wetlands
Abstract
The isotopic composition of Pb was determined in Finnish peat bogs and their porewaters from Harjavalta (HAR, near a Cu-Ni smelter), Outokumpu (OUT, near a Cu-Ni mine), and Hietajärvi (HIJ, a background site). At HIJ and OUT, the porewaters yielded similar concentrations (0.1-0.7 µg/L) and isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.154-1.164). In contrast, the peat profile from HAR yielded greater concentrations of Pb in the porewaters (average 2.4 µg/L), and the Pb is less radiogenic ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.121-1.149). Acidification of the bog surface waters to pH 3.5 by SO2 emitted from smelting (compared to pH 4.0 at the control site) apparently promotes the dissolution of Pb-bearing aerosols, as well as desorption of metals from the surfaces of these particles and from the peat matrix. Despite this, the chronology of anthropogenic, atmospheric deposition for the past millenium recorded by the isotopic composition of Pb in all three peat bogs is remarkably similar. While the immobility of Pb in the peat cores may appear inconsistent with the elevated porewater Pb concentrations, Pb concentrations in the aqueous phase never amount to more than 0.01% of the total Pb at any given depth so that the potential for migration remains small. The low rates of vertical water movement in bogs generally combined with the size of the metal-containing particles in solution may be additional factors limiting Pb mobilization.
PubMed ID
27536961 View in PubMed
Less detail

Recent mild and wet years in relation to long observation records and future climate change in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95848
Source
Ambio. 2004 Jun;33(4-5):183-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Lindström Göran
Alexandersson Hans
Author Affiliation
Department of Research and Development, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping. goran.lindstrom@smhi.se
Source
Ambio. 2004 Jun;33(4-5):183-6
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Rain
Sweden
Temperature
Abstract
Recent mild and wet years in Sweden were compared with long observation series of temperature, precipitation and runoff. Spatial average series for northern and southern Sweden were constructed and analyzed for the period 1901-2002. Precipitation increased considerably during the period, whereas temperature and runoff increases were weaker. On average, for the whole country, the differences between the period 1991-2002 and 1901-1990 were +0.7 degrees C for temperature, +11% in precipitation and +7% in runoff. The differences in temperature and precipitation, but not runoff, were significant at the 5% level. However, the 1930s were equally mild, and the runoff was almost as high in the 1920s. The characteristic feature of the past decade is the combination of high temperature, precipitation and runoff. The deviation between the most recent decade and the preceding years is consistent with climate scenario projections for Sweden, but there are also differences in the seasonal pattern.
PubMed ID
15264595 View in PubMed
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Evaluating species richness: Biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in detection probabilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268704
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Sep;25(6):1669-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Lance B McNew
Colleen M Handel
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Sep;25(6):1669-80
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Biodiversity
Computer simulation
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Abstract
Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multispecies occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real data set of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, USA, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results indicate that neglecting the effects of site covariates on species detection probabilities may lead to significant bias in estimation of species richness, as well as the inferred relationships between community size and environmental covariates.
PubMed ID
26552273 View in PubMed
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[The scientific and practical activities of the Center for State Epidemiological Health Surveillance in Shchelkovo District, Moscow Province].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202459
Source
Gig Sanit. 1999 Jan-Feb;(1):68-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
V E Poliak
Source
Gig Sanit. 1999 Jan-Feb;(1):68-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Government Agencies
Humans
Population Surveillance
Russia
PubMed ID
10199090 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biomonitoring of herbicides in Ontario farm applicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172685
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31 Suppl 1:90-7; discussion 63-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
Donald C Cole
Len Ritter
Brian D Ripley
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, AL 6604C, 2720 Riverside Dr, Ottawa (ON), Canada. Tye_Arbuckle@hcsc.gc.ca
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31 Suppl 1:90-7; discussion 63-5
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Guideline Adherence
Herbicides - urine
Humans
Ontario
Abstract
Biomonitoring of pesticide residues in urine offers the advantages of integrating exposure due to all routes of entry and accounting for individual differences in several factors such as pharmacokinetics. The study was designed to measure the body burden of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in farm applicators and to measure compliance with label recommendations regarding the use of personal protective gear and the impact of such use on exposure.
Farmers (N=126) from Ontario, Canada, collected a preexposure spot sample of urine and then two consecutive 24-hour urine samples immediately following the farmers' first use of these herbicides during 1996. Details on the pesticides used and handling practices were collected by questionnaire.
For the farmers who reported using 2,4-D, the mean urinary concentration was 27.6 microg/l in the day-1 sample and 40.8 microg/l in the day-2 sample. The comparable figures for MCPA were 44.4 microg/l and 58.0 microg/l, respectively. Adherence to all of the recommended personal protective gear was rare (3%). Wearing goggles or a face shield during mixing and loading was associated with the lowest exposures.
The urinary concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA of these farm applicators were of the same order of magnitude as those published in the past decade, but lower than earlier studies, indicating that improvements in education, equipment, and labeling have likely had an impact on the degree of exposure in occupational settings.
PubMed ID
16190154 View in PubMed
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Temporal Trends of C8-C36 Chlorinated Paraffins in Swedish Coastal Sediment Cores over the Past 80 Years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292339
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Dec 19; 51(24):14199-14208
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-19-2017
Author
Bo Yuan
Volker Brüchert
Anna Sobek
Cynthia A de Wit
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , Svante Arrhenius väg 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Dec 19; 51(24):14199-14208
Date
Dec-19-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Geologic sediments
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Paraffin
Sweden
Abstract
Temporal trends of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were analyzed in three sediment cores collected near different potential CP sources along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. C8-C36 CPs were found in sediment dating back to the 1930s. The maximum CP concentrations found in proximity to a metropolitan sewage treatment plant, a wood-related industrial area, and a steel factory were 48, 160, and 1400 ng/g d.w., respectively, in sediment sections dated from the early 1990s or the 2000s. The temporal trends agree with statistics on CP importation in Sweden or local industrial activities. MCCPs (C14-C17 CPs) and LCCPs (C=18 CPs) predominated in most sediments with average percentage compositions of 47 ± 20% and 37 ± 20%, respectively. Concentrations of SCCPs in the three cores showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The temporal trends of MCCPs indicated that these are currently the predominant CPs in use. This study showed for the first time that LCCPs from C18 to C36, as well as C8-C17 CPs, are persistent in sediments over the last 50-80 years, indicating that CPs are persistent chemicals regardless of alkane-chain lengths.
PubMed ID
29155575 View in PubMed
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2677 records – page 1 of 268.