It has been noticed that the morphofunctional organization of the thyroid gland is similar in representatives of two different classes of vertebrates: in fishes and in rats. Exposure of experimental animals to ecological factors with increased lead levels was followed by a phase response (activation, depression) of various structural elements of the thyroid gland. Obvious differences in morphofunctional mechanisms of adaptation to chemical stress factors in fishes and rats were found. A possible relationship is discussed between the environmental pollution with heavy metals and the increased incidence of thyroid gland disease in human population.
Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4/kg body weight. The calculated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4. 68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by "smoking gizzards" and characteristic odor, and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the possibility that P4 pellets were mistaken for the similarly sized grit in their gizzards. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to be related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.
Cytogenetic investigation of plant cells and somatic cells of children from Dnepropetrovsk shown and increase of the frequency of chromosome aberrations and gene mutations in contaminated regions that testified the increased mutagenic background of urban environment.
The article covers experience of biologic rehabilitation through correction of algocenosis (algolization) of drinkable water basins in Nizhny Tagil industrial complex. Biologic rehabilitation of Chernoistochnik and Verhne-Vyisky drinkable water basins in 2011-2012 considerably improved water quality in ecologic hydrochemical and hydrobiologic parameters--that was proved by absent water contamination with blue-green algae, lower saprobiont index. Results also are significant lower concentration of pollutants--heavy metals (ferrum, manganese, copper), oil products, decreased odor and and better water quality in hydrochemical parameters to second class according to water pollution index.
The authors demonstrate possible use of allometric equations to describe age-matched oncologic morbidity and mortality in stable population. Deviations from the allometric model (allometric signals) could be traced to changed technogenic load on the population. Examples show relationships between rank parameters of the models and the technogenic load levels.
The level and qualitative spectrum of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations (CA) were comparatively analyzed in the lymphocytes of 655 children and adolescents from the Kemerovo Region. The presented sample was divided into 3 groups according to the type of an inhabited locality: 1) small miner's towns; 2) large industrial towns; and 3) rural localities. The maximum frequency of CA (3.77 +/- 0.22%) was noted in a group of dwellers in the miner's towns; its minimum frequency (2.68 +/- 0.17%) among the rural inhabitants. The significant clastogenic effects (including the markers of radiation exposure) were detected in the miner's towns located in the southern part of the region, which represented mountain and submountain areas. At the same time, in the northern and western parts of the Kemerovo Region, the average frequencies of CA in children and adolescents did not exceed the control background values. Thus, the residence in the inhabited localities specializing in mining is not a factor of absolute toxicogenetic risk.
There is an increase in primary and overall mortality in the Sverdlovsk regional areas exposed to eastern-Urals radiation traces. The children mostly commonly have diseases of the endocrine and nervous systems, sensory and respiratory organs. The adults have predominantly neoplasms, diseases of the nervous, digestive, and urogenital systems and sensory organs. In the study period (1990-2000), morbidity considerably increased in the Kamensk Region marked by the highest radioactive contamination. There was an association of the morbidity rates with environmental (Bogdanovichsky District) and socioeconomic (Kamensky and Bogdanovichsky Districts) factors and with level of radioactive contamination (Kamensky and Bogdanovichsky Districts).