Skip header and navigation

Refine By

38 records – page 1 of 4.

Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90631
Source
Environ Pollut. 2009 Mar;157(3):737-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Imaeda Daisuke
Kunisue Tatsuya
Ochi Yoko
Iwata Hisato
Tsydenova Oyuna
Takahashi Shin
Amano Masao
Petrov Evgeny A
Batoev Valeriy B
Tanabe Shinsuke
Author Affiliation
Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2009 Mar;157(3):737-47
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry - metabolism
Animals
Body Burden
Ecotoxicology - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fresh Water
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Siberia
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Time Factors
Abstract
This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209pg/g).
PubMed ID
19110354 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessing human polychlorinated biphenyl contamination for epidemiologic studies: lessons from patterns of congener concentrations in Canadians in 1992.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185987
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):437-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Beth C Gladen
Josée Doucet
Larry G Hansen
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. gladen@niehs.nih.gov
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):437-43
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Epidemiologic Studies
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Reproducibility of Results
Specimen Handling
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Humans are always exposed to mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), so assessment of their health effects is complicated. Because the original sources are relatively standard mixtures that change in predictable ways while traversing the environment, there is substantial uniformity in the congener mixtures people carry. To the extent that concentrations are highly correlated, measuring multiple congeners within correlated groups would be unnecessary and estimation of separate biologic effects would be impossible. We examined correlation patterns in previously collected data on 38 congeners (and 14 other organochlorines) from 497 human milk samples from Canada from 1992. Congeners 138, 153, 156, 157, 170, 183, 187, 194, 199, and 203 were highly intercorrelated; 180 had slightly lower correlations with this group. Congeners 74, 105, and 118 were highly intercorrelated and moderately to highly correlated with the first group. Congener 99 had moderate correlations with both these groups, and congener 66 had lesser correlations with the primary group. In contrast, congeners 28, 44, 49, 60, 90/101, 128, 137, and 193 showed little correlation with any other congeners. The remaining 14 congeners were uninformative; they were quantified in fewer than 30% of samples, and varying lipid concentrations meant that those quantified were not necessarily at higher concentrations than those not quantified. In study of human health effects of PCBs, the congener pattern present in the population under study should be examined when deciding which congeners to measure; instead of solely redundant or uninformative congeners, attention should be given to other congeners that may be more useful in addressing the question of interest.
Notes
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Nov;109(11):1163-811713002
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Nov;109(11):1153-6111713001
Cites: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1985 Jul;14(4):443-503929701
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1987 Oct;77(10):1294-73115123
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1988 Jan;68:141-593129782
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1989 May;81:225-392503374
Cites: Environ Res. 1991 Apr;54(2):121-341903103
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1991 Oct;47(4):491-81786431
Cites: Annu Rev Nutr. 1992;12:417-411503813
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jan;102 Suppl 1:149-588187704
Cites: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1994 Jun;28(1):1-137523063
Cites: Chemosphere. 1995 Jun;30(11):2143-537620848
Cites: Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 May 26;293(1):1-407545581
Cites: Chemosphere. 1996 Aug;33(3):559-658680832
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Jul;104(7):712-228841756
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Jan;105(1):13-49074863
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 1997;18:211-449143718
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1997 Dec;32(6):606-139358917
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106 Suppl 1:171-899539012
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Dec;106(12):775-929831538
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1999 Jan;35(1):15-209884741
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1999 Mar;35(3):223-319987555
Cites: Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S46-S5610092419
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107(6):459-6210339445
Cites: Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 Nov;37(11):1081-810566879
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Feb;108(2):167-7210656858
Cites: Chemosphere. 2000 May-Jun;40(9-11):1075-8210739048
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 2000 May-Jun;55(3):195-20010908103
Cites: J Anal Toxicol. 2000 Sep;24(6):403-2010999346
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2000 Dec;29(6):975-8211101537
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Nov;108(11):1035-4111102293
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2000 Dec 18;263(1-3):197-20811194153
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Feb;109(2):173-811266329
Cites: Environ Res. 2001 Jul;86(3):217-2811453672
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Apr;110(4):411-711940460
PubMed ID
12676596 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bioaccumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in seals, fishes and invertebrates from the White Sea, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6699
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2003 May 1;306(1-3):111-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2003
Author
Derek Muir
Tatiana Savinova
Vladimir Savinov
Ludmila Alexeeva
Vladimir Potelov
Vladislav Svetochev
Author Affiliation
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6. Derek.muir@ec.gc.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2003 May 1;306(1-3):111-31
Date
May-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Animals
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Fishes
Food chain
Insecticides - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Invertebrates
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Seals, Earless
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Persistent organochlorines (OC) contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT)- and chlordane (CHL) related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) isomers and chlorobenzenes (CBz) were determined in blubber of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Eringnathus barbatus) as well as in fishes and invertebrates from the White Sea, in northwest Russia. Highest summation operator PCB and summation operator DDT concentrations were found in samples from two male bearded seals (means of 4150 ng/g lw and 3950 ng/g lw, respectively). Female harp seals had mean summation operator PCB and summation operator DDT concentrations of 1070+/-504 ng/g lw and 619+/-328 ng/g lw, respectively. Male and female adult ringed seals had similar mean summation operator PCB concentrations as harp seals (955+/-385 ng/g lw and 999+/-304 ng/g lw, respectively). summation operator CHL concentrations ranged from 63+/-29 ng/g lw in blubber of female adult ringed seals, to 322+/-156 ng/g lw in adult harp seals and averaged 465 ng/g lw in bearded seals. HCH isomers, mirex and chlorobenzenes were detected in all seal samples but were present at lower levels than summation operator CHL, summation operator DDT and summation operator PCB. Concentrations of summation operator CHL, summation operator DDT and summation operator PCB in ringed seals from the White Sea were within the range reported for the Barents Sea but lower than in ringed seals from the Kara Sea. Temporal trends were investigated by comparing concentrations of OCs in blubber of harp seal pups collected in 1992 with pups of the same age collected in 1998. The declines over the 6 year period ranged from approximately 33% for summation operator DDT to 60% for summation operator PCB. These declines are consistent with reports of declining concentrations summation operator DDT in seawater from the White Sea and inflowing rivers in the 1980's and early 1990s. The major OC contaminants in fishes from the White Sea were DDT-related compounds and PCBs. Navaga (Eleginus navaga) had the highest concentrations of the 5 fish species studied with mean summation operator PCB of 41+/-6 ng/g wet wt. while lowest mean concentrations were present in cod muscle (16+/-8 ng/g ww). Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDT, CHL-related compounds and PCB congeners were strongly correlated with trophic level of the organisms assigned using delta(15)N values, while beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and cis-chlordane showed no relationship with trophic level. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) for p,p'-DDE, alpha-HCH, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor the White Sea were similar to those from marine food webs in the Barents Sea and the Canadian arctic, while FWMFs for HCB and PCBs were generally lower. Overall the results suggest that the White Sea marine food differs in terms of the availability of contaminants in comparison to studies of open ocean arctic food webs due to proximity to urban/industrial areas and greater importance of benthic food sources.
PubMed ID
12699922 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biological and chemical factors of importance in the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants in Arctic marine food webs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4755
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004 Oct;23(10):2367-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
  1 website  
Author
Katrine Borgå
Aaron T Fisk
Paul E Hoekstra
Derek C G Muir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004 Oct;23(10):2367-85
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Arctic Regions
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Food chain
Humans
Lindane - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Lipids - chemistry
Organic Chemicals
Reproduction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
Recent studies of arctic marine food webs have provided detailed insights regarding the biological and chemical factors that influence the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants in aquatic systems. The present paper summarizes the recent literature with an emphasis on identifying important ecological factors for explaining variability of OC concentrations among organisms. The Arctic ecosystem has a number of unique attributes, including long food chains, reduced diversity of species, similar food webs across the entire region, and limited influence from pollution point sources. Lipid content, body size, age, gender, reproduction, habitat use, migration, biotransformation, seasonal changes in habitat conditions, feeding ecology, and trophic position have all been demonstrated to influence OC concentrations and bioaccumulation in arctic marine biota. The relative importance of each factor varies among OCs and organisms. Diet or trophic level is the dominant factor influencing OC concentrations and dynamics in seabirds and marine mammals, although biotransformation can significantly influence nonrecalcitrant OCs, such as hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Dietary accumulation of OCs is also an important route of exposure for arctic fish and zooplankton, and biomagnification of OCs may also occur among these organisms. To date, only limited attempts have been made to model trophic transfer of OCs in the arctic marine food web. Although models developed to assess OC dynamics in aquatic food webs have included some biological variables (e.g., lipid content, feeding rate, diet composition, and growth rate), selection of processes included in these models as well as their mathematical solutions and parameterization all introduce simplification. This reduces biological validity of the models and may be particularly problematic in a highly seasonal environment, such as the Arctic Ocean.
PubMed ID
15511099 View in PubMed
Online Resources
Less detail

Chemical contaminants in juvenile gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) from a subsistence harvest in Arctic feeding grounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4800
Source
Chemosphere. 2002 May;47(6):555-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Karen L Tilbury
John E Stein
Cheryl A Krone
Robert L Brownell
S A Blokhin
Jennie L Bolton
Don W Ernest
Author Affiliation
Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. karen.tilbury@noaa.gov
Source
Chemosphere. 2002 May;47(6):555-64
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aluminum - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Arctic Regions
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Insecticides - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Movement
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Whales
Abstract
Gray whales are coastal migratory baleen whales that are benthic feeders. Most of their feeding takes place in the northern Pacific Ocean with opportunistic feeding taking place during their migrations and residence on the breeding grounds. The concentrations of organochlorines and trace elements were determined in tissues and stomach contents of juvenile gray whales that were taken on their Arctic feeding grounds in the western Bering Sea during a Russian subsistence harvest. These concentrations were compared to previously published data for contaminants in gray whales that stranded along the west coast of the US during their northbound migration. Feeding in coastal waters during their migrations may present a risk of exposure to toxic chemicals in some regions. The mean concentration (standard error of the mean, SEM) of sigmaPCBs [1400 (130) ng/g, lipid weight] in the blubber of juvenile subsistence whales was significantly lower than the mean level [27,000 (11,000) ng/g, lipid weight] reported previously in juvenile gray whales that stranded in waters off the west coast of the US. Aluminum in stomach contents of the subsistence whales was high compared to other marine mammal species, which is consistent with the ingestion of sediment during feeding. Furthermore, the concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in tissues were relatively low when compared to the concentrations in tissues of other marine mammals feeding at higher trophic levels. These chemical contaminant data for the subsistence gray whales substantially increase the information available for presumably healthy animals.
PubMed ID
12047066 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6869
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1994 Sep 16;154(2-3):107-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-16-1994
Author
R J Norstrom
D C Muir
Author Affiliation
Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Québec.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1994 Sep 16;154(2-3):107-28
Date
Sep-16-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biological Transport, Active
Comparative Study
Ecosystem
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Mammals - metabolism
Marine Biology
Abstract
By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (
PubMed ID
7973601 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish, vegetables, and meats and levels in human milk of nursing women in Japan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61682
Source
Chemosphere. 2002 Feb;46(5):689-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Souichi Ohta
Daisuke Ishizuka
Hajime Nishimura
Teruyuki Nakao
Osamu Aozasa
Yoshiko Shimidzu
Fumie Ochiai
Takafumi Kida
Masatoshi Nishi
Hideaki Miyata
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan. ohta@pharm.setsunan.ac.jp
Source
Chemosphere. 2002 Feb;46(5):689-96
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Breast Feeding
Comparative Study
Diet
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fishes
Flame Retardants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Food Contamination
Humans
Japan
Meat
Milk, human - chemistry
Phenyl Ethers - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Pregnancy
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tissue Distribution
Vegetables
Abstract
At present, little is known about the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish and food products sold in Japan. To investigate whether human exposure to PBDEs through the diet is significant, the concentrations of PBDEs were determined in fish and in meat and vegetables sold in two food markets in the city of Hirakata, Osaka prefecture. The concentrations of PBDEs in the breast milk of 12 primiparae nursing women at one month after delivery also were determined to ascertain the relationship between the levels found in the diet and levels in humans. sigma PBDE concentrations ranged between 21 and 1650 pg/g fresh weight in the edible tissues of five species of fish and one shellfish species. The highest concentrations were measured in yellow-fin tuna, followed by short-necked clam, salmon, yellowtail, mackerel and young yellowtail. Interestingly, sigma PBDE concentrations were not statistically significantly different in two cultured mackerel samples from Japan and mackerel collected from northern European waters. sigma PBDE concentrations in beef, pork and chicken meat (ranging between 6.25 and 63.6 pg/g fresh weight) and in three different vegetables (ranging between 38.4 and 134 pg/g fresh weight) were significantly lower than the concentrations in fish. In human milk, sigma PBDE concentrations ranged between 668 and 2840 pg/g lipid basis, which is comparable to the levels in populations of nursing women reported in Sweden and elsewhere. There was a strong positive relationship between PBDE concentrations in human milk and dietary intake of fish and shellfish, which was established in the women from responses to a questionaire on food consumption habits. The results of this study of food products commonly consumed in Japan and the levels found in nursing women raise a concern about low level PBDE contamination of fish and other foods intended for human consumption.
PubMed ID
11999792 View in PubMed
Less detail

Congener-specific accumulation and food chain transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two arctic food chains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4768
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2004 Mar 15;38(6):1667-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2004
Author
Hans Wolkers
Bert van Bavel
Andrew E Derocher
Oystein Wiig
Kit M Kovacs
Christian Lydersen
Gunilla Lindström
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway, Hans.Wolkers@npolar.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2004 Mar 15;38(6):1667-74
Date
Mar-15-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Ethers - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Fishes - physiology
Food chain
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Seals, Earless - physiology
Tissue Distribution
Ursidae - physiology
Whales - physiology
Abstract
Congener-specific accumulation and prey to predator transfer of 22 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were assessed in polar cod, ringed seal, polar bear, and beluga whale. Although the concentrations found were relatively low, these results show that PBDEs have reached the Arctic. PBDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were dominant in all species studied. The pattern in ringed seal was somewhat simpler than in polar cod, with PBDE 47 accounting for more than 90% of the total PBDEs. In contrast, beluga whales, feeding on prey similar to that of ringed seals, showed higher PBDE levels and a more complex PBDE pattern than ringed seals. In contrast, polar bears contained only PBDE 47 in relatively small amounts. These differences in levels and patterns are likely due to species-specific differences in PBDE metabolism and accumulation. The metabolic index suggested that PBDEs 47 and 99 accumulate to the same magnitude as PCB 153 (PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl) in ringed seals and beluga whales. In contrast to beluga whales, ringed seals can metabolize PBDE 100 to some extent. Polar bears are seemingly capable of metabolizing virtually all PBDEs and are therefore unsuitable as indicators for PBDE contamination in the environment.
PubMed ID
15074673 View in PubMed
Less detail

Congener specific PCB and polychlorinated camphene (toxaphene) levels in Svalbard ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in relation to sex, age, condition and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6811
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 May 14;216(1-2):1-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-14-1998
Author
J. Wolkers
I C Burkow
C. Lydersen
S. Dahle
M. Monshouwer
R F Witkamp
Author Affiliation
Akvaplan-niva, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 May 14;216(1-2):1-11
Date
May-14-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology
Age Factors
Animals
Body Burden
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - metabolism
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Male
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Seals, Earless - anatomy & histology - metabolism
Sex Factors
Toxaphene - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Congener specific PCB and toxaphene (polychlorinated camphene, PCC) analyses were performed in seal blubber, collected in Svalbard, Norway. The concentration, body burden and metabolic index (PCB congener concentration in seal relative to their prey) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of age, sex, blubber (as a percentage of total body weight) and cytochrome P450 activities on PCB and PCC levels. Levels of total PCBs found were five times higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, corresponding with the relatively high contaminant levels in the European Arctic. The dominant PCB congeners (> 70% of the total PCBs measured) were 153, 138, 99, 180 and 101. The observed PCB and PCC accumulation patterns were very similar to patterns in seals from other studies, suggesting a large resemblance in contaminant metabolism. A decrease in the relative abundance of the lower chlorinated PCBs, was associated with higher concentrations of PCB 153. Since there was no indication for selective PCB excretion by lactating females, this suggests metabolism of these PCBs in ringed seals due to xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. The metabolic index confirmed the model of persistency of the different PCBs except for congener 128 and 138. These congeners, considered persistent in seals, could to some extent be metabolised in ringed seals. However, co-elution of PCB 138 with PCB 163 and of PCB 128 with TOX 50 possibly has resulted in an underestimation of the metabolic index for these congeners. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant positive effect of age and a negative effect of the blubber content on the PCB concentrations. Since large fluctuations of body lipids occur between seasons in pinnipeds, PCB measurements should account for the total blubber content to avoid biased results. PCBs with vicinal H-atoms in the o, m or the m, p positions showed in addition a relation with cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. Surprisingly, no effect of sex on the PCB concentrations was observed, probably because female ringed seals, unlike other pinnipeds, continue feeding during lactation. This results in only small amounts of lipid and lipid-associated contaminants being mobilised from the blubber. Consequently, contaminant excretion with the milk will be low. Toxaphene concentrations found were low compared to levels found in the Canadian Arctic. Two congeners, TOX 26 and TOX 50 were predominant (15 and 18%, respectively of total toxaphene). There was no effect of sex, age, total blubber, or cytochrome P450 activities on the toxaphene levels. There was also no correlation between toxaphene and PCB levels, which may indicate differences in exposure and metabolism between these contaminants. Toxaphenes did not bioaccumulate to any substantial extent in ringed seals.
PubMed ID
9618926 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contaminant exposure and biomarker responses in spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6085
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):107-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2000
Author
K A Trust
K T Rummel
A M Scheuhammer
I L Brisbin
M J Hooper
Author Affiliation
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services, 605 West 4th Ave., Room G62, Anchorage, Alaska 99501, USA.
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):107-13
Date
Jan-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Biological Markers - analysis
Brain - drug effects - metabolism - pathology
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - metabolism
Ducks
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - analysis - toxicity
Kidney - chemistry - drug effects - metabolism - pathology
Liver - chemistry - drug effects - metabolism - pathology
Male
Metallothionein - metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry
Porphyrins - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Spleen - drug effects - pathology
Testis - drug effects - pathology
Tissue Distribution
Trace Elements - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Effects of chemical contaminant exposure may be contributing to the decline of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) nesting in coastal areas of western Alaska. We evaluated chemical exposure and potential effects in 20 male eiders collected near St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Analytes included metals, trace elements, chlorinated organics, and (137)Cesium ((137)Cs). Effects of contaminant exposure were evaluated using histopathology and biochemical measures of porphyrin profiles, cytochrome P450 activities, and metallothionein (MT) concentrations. Copper, cadmium, and selenium concentrations were elevated in spectacled eiders when compared to literature values for other marine birds. Only a few samples had trace concentrations of chlorinated organic compounds. Muscle (137)Cs levels were all below the average minimum quantifiable concentration of 0.079 Bq/g. No histopathological lesions were associated with elevated contaminant concentrations in liver, kidney, or testes. Protoporphyrin was found in highest concentration in both the liver and kidneys, followed by coproporphyrin and uroporphyrin, respectively. Hepatic uroporphyrin concentrations correlated significantly to hepatic arsenic concentrations. Mean activities of hepatic EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD were consistent with other avian species. Comparisons of cadmium/MT ratios from this study to published literature ratios in seven marine avian species suggest that, although adult male spectacled eiders have elevated liver concentrations of certain MT-inducing metals, their MT concentrations are not as strongly induced as would be predicted based on literature values. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the apparent good health of the St. Lawrence Island birds suggests that should these contaminants be a factor in population declines, they likely act by decreasing fecundity or survival of young rather than via direct health impacts on adult male spectacled eiders.
PubMed ID
10556377 View in PubMed
Less detail

38 records – page 1 of 4.