In this article there are presented the current views on the technology for the assessment of the exposure to chemical pollutants with the use of the methodology of human biomonitoring and the main advantages of the latter are highlighted. There are presented main problems of the implementation of biomonitoring studies in Russia such as: beginning with the lack of the national system of the biomonitoring, and accomplishing with the inconsistency in the data within the country, the inability to assess the trend according to levels of exposure in the regional or national context. Due to the inconvenience of the Russian regulatory basis on human biomonitoring, there is persisted technological backwardness in terms of the delivery of the design, presentation and evaluation of research results, which results in the decline of the significance of biomonitoring for public health in the country. There is preserved a need for standardization and harmonization of methods and procedures of human biomonitoring (HBM) in Russia with international requirements. A serious concern is the lack of Russian programs on standardization of procedures and interlaboratcy comparison of results according to biomarkers of the exposure, the insufficient involvement of national laboratories in international programs of the comparison, the difficulties with the acquisition of standard samples of the compositionfor different environmental pollutants in biological tissues. The restraint ofthe development of HBM in the Russian Federation is caused by a complex of reasons. The most urgent task is the development of the national concept of the system with subsequent formation of technological, institutional and organizational framework of biomonitoring, as well as the improvement of Russian normative-methodical base.
BACKGROUND: In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. METHODS: We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59) and kidney (n = 57) tissues. RESULTS: Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1-35.6 microg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1-50 microg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 microg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p
A possibility was examined to use a screening cytogenetic method for calculating micronuclei in frog blood cells as an indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and its hazard to human health. Data obtained correlate with an increased rate of reproductive function disorders in women and congenital malformations in children, living in regions where the cytologic studies of biological objects were carried out. The informational value of biogeochemical screening with the use of test objects for the assessment of the region ecological imbalance is stressed.
To characterize clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in persons living under various environmental pollution.
Three groups of SLE patients living in the Orenburg region were examined: those exposed to intensive production pollution (n = 35 patients), exposed to mild pollution (n = 15), unexposed to production pollution (n = 25 patients). The pollution intensity was assessed by total aerogenic, water and soil pollution rates.
The hair from 69 patients contained 24 chemical elements. More severe clinical symptoms of SLE were registered in patients living in conditions of intensive production pollution. These symptoms' severity directly correlated with the level of heavy metals in the hair of SLE patients and inversely correlated with hair levels of essential chemical elements.
Chemical pollutants directly impair organs and tissues of SLE patients and indirectly do this via damaged immune system.
The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.
Environmental pollutants, which may occur in breast milk and in various food products and drinking water, and which are also transferred to the foetus, constitute a severe threat to the health of infants and children. Among such compounds, various organochlorines, such as pesticides for the control of parasites (DDTs, HCHs), and products of industry and agriculture, such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCBs), are much discussed, in addition to organic mercury and heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. The consequences of acute exposure to PCB have been documented in Japan following the ingestion of rice oil contaminated by PCBs. In Sweden birthweight has been found to be reduced and the perinatal mortality rate higher than expected in regions with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. In addition, from studies around Lake Michigan, it has been shown that children who have been exposed to PCBs in utero have retarded cognitive development. In the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia people have been subjected to long-term exposure to various pesticides, which have been distributed over the cotton fields in huge quantities. Organochlorines are resistant to breakdown in nature, thus they enter the food chain, eventually entering the human diet, and they may also be inhaled from dust. Such compounds accumulate in the foetus by placental transport and continue to do so postnatally if the infants are breastfed, as they may be present in high concentrations in human milk. The health of children living in the Aral Sea region is reported to be poor, with high morbidity and mortality and a high rate of chronic diseases and retarded mental and physical development. However, in addition to being subjected to environmental pollution, these children also suffer from health hazards related to poverty. Through epidemiological studies it may be possible to obtain information about to what extent exposure to environmental pollution from organochlorines contributes to the poor health of people living in the Aral Sea region.
The physical status was comparatively studied in students living under different conditions of environmental pollution. The anthropometric and some physiometric (vital capacity) parameters were established to be lower in students from polluted areas than in those from relatively pure ones. The students from polluted areas were observed to have higher hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output). The results of the study improve and supplement knowledge of the physical development of the students living in the areas with varying environmental pollution levels and reflect the morphofunctional status that is an indicator in the evaluation of the body's functional tension, which may suggest the suppressing action of environmental pollution on the students' body.
The environmental justice literature has described differential health effects of environmental toxins and pollutants on people of different socio-economic status (SES) that may not always reflect differing levels of exposure. We offer four questions or contentions that together may contribute to understanding this conundrum and then present an empirical exploration of one of these questions: Does the relationship between SES and self-perceived status vary in space? Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults conducted in twenty-five communities in British Columbia, Canada, a supplementary data set containing demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the communities themselves, and multilevel modelling techniques, this article describes relationships between objective and subjective measures of social status, by gender and in space. Our analysis contributes to the development of innovative environmental justice models by bringing some spatial sensitivity to interrelationships among these aspects of status.