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44 records – page 1 of 5.

An overview of municipal state of the environment reporting in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213879
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):408-13
Publication Type
Article
Author
M E Campbell
V W Maclaren
Author Affiliation
Metropolitan Toronto Teaching Health Units, North York Department of Public Health, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):408-13
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Diffusion of Innovation
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Local Government
Models, organizational
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Abstract
State of the Environment (SOE) reporting is an emerging municipal management tool designed to monitor and increase awareness of the current status, changes and trends in the condition of the local environment. A multifaceted investigation was undertaken to examine municipal SOE reporting in Canada and to identify barriers to its widespread implementation. Highlights of the case study and survey components are summarized and a conceptual model for municipal SOE reporting is proposed. Overall, the study revealed considerable interest in environmental reporting, however, the lack of common municipal indicators, organizing frameworks and environmental data accessible at the local level impedes its widespread implementation. Future needs to enhance SOE reporting include: development of common municipal indicators, including environmental sustainability indicators; enhancement of the compatibility of SOE reporting frameworks across municipal, provincial and national levels; and re-examination of the data collected by diverse levels of government to optimize their utilization at the local level.
PubMed ID
8932481 View in PubMed
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Antineoplastic agent workplace contamination study: the Alberta Cancer Board Pharmacy perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171328
Source
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2005 Sep;11(3):101-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
Heidi Schulz
Susan Bigelow
Roxanne Dobish
Carole R Chambers
Author Affiliation
Cross Cancer Institute Site, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. heidis@cancerboard.ab.ca
Source
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2005 Sep;11(3):101-9
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Antineoplastic Agents - analysis
Cancer Care Facilities
Cyclophosphamide - analysis
Drug Packaging
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Feasibility Studies
Gloves, Protective - standards
Humans
Occupational Exposure - analysis - prevention & control
Pharmacies - standards
Pharmacy - standards
Pharmacy Service, Hospital
Safety Management
Abstract
To investigate the feasibility of routine monitoring for workplace antineoplastic agent contamination in the Alberta Cancer Board (ACB) pharmacy practice environment.
The ACB in the Canadian province of Alberta, which includes two public tertiary centres and 17 associated community satellite sites based around the province in existing hospitals.
Obtained organizational support and input prior to launching the feasibility study (Phase I). Samples were analysed for a common cytotoxic agent - cyclophosphamide. Surfaces chosen were within the biological safety cabinets, workplace counter tops and on external surfaces of vials provided by manufacturers. Blank samples and known contaminated controls were included in Phase I to reconfirm the methodology in a previously published study. Feasibility aspects of logistics and financial expenses were examined. A second phase (Phase II) was completed to test other areas of the pharmacy and vials, with blank samples included to reconfirm previously mentioned methodology.
The results determined that the samples tested were below acceptable detection limits with the exception of the known contaminated sample (Phase I) and exterior surfaces of vials (Phase II).
This project has increased staff awareness of the sources for antineoplastic agent workplace contamination. Some practice changes were instituted during the project itself. Logistics and expenses were realistic for routine monitoring to be adopted.
PubMed ID
16390598 View in PubMed
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[Application of a standardized-human biomonitoring methodology to assess prenatal exposure to mercury].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263391
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Sep-Oct;(5):10-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A I Egorov
I N Ilchenko
S M Lyapunov
E V Marochkina
O I Okina
B V Ermolaev
T V Karamysheva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Sep-Oct;(5):10-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Food Habits
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Mercury - analysis - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Questionnaires
Russia
Seafood
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
World Health Organization
Abstract
World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), has developed a standardized methodology for human biomonitoring (HBM) surveys in maternities in order to assess prenatal exposure to mercury. To test this standard methodology and adapt it to Russian settings, a cross-sectional HBM survey involving 120 parturient women was conducted in six maternities of the Moscow Region. Levels of total mercury in maternal hair (geometric mean: 0.21 µg/g, 95th percentile: 0.54 µg/g), cord blood (0.89 µg/L and 2.38 µg/L, respectively) and maternal urine (0.27 µg/L and 0.94 µg/L) in this population were similar to those in other European countries with relatively low fish consumption. Consumption of all types of fish at least once per week during the third trimester of pregnancy compared to fish consumption less than once per month was associated with the increase of geometric mean level of total mercury: in hair by 31% (95% confidence interval: 4%, 66%) higher, in cord blood--by 38% (9%, 74%) and in maternal urine--by 36% (2%, 81%). No biomarker values exceeded levels recommended by WHO or national agencies in the USA and Germany. However; at the population level, adverse effects of prenatal exposures to mercury can still be substantial.
PubMed ID
25831921 View in PubMed
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[APPLICATION OF BIOMONITORING METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270361
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):85-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
I N Ilchenko
S M Lyapunov
O I Okina
T V Karamysheva
A N Kartasheva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):85-9
Date
2015
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis - classification
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects - analysis - classification
Humans
Risk Assessment - methods
Russia
Abstract
In this article there are presented the current views on the technology for the assessment of the exposure to chemical pollutants with the use of the methodology of human biomonitoring and the main advantages of the latter are highlighted. There are presented main problems of the implementation of biomonitoring studies in Russia such as: beginning with the lack of the national system of the biomonitoring, and accomplishing with the inconsistency in the data within the country, the inability to assess the trend according to levels of exposure in the regional or national context. Due to the inconvenience of the Russian regulatory basis on human biomonitoring, there is persisted technological backwardness in terms of the delivery of the design, presentation and evaluation of research results, which results in the decline of the significance of biomonitoring for public health in the country. There is preserved a need for standardization and harmonization of methods and procedures of human biomonitoring (HBM) in Russia with international requirements. A serious concern is the lack of Russian programs on standardization of procedures and interlaboratcy comparison of results according to biomarkers of the exposure, the insufficient involvement of national laboratories in international programs of the comparison, the difficulties with the acquisition of standard samples of the compositionfor different environmental pollutants in biological tissues. The restraint ofthe development of HBM in the Russian Federation is caused by a complex of reasons. The most urgent task is the development of the national concept of the system with subsequent formation of technological, institutional and organizational framework of biomonitoring, as well as the improvement of Russian normative-methodical base.
PubMed ID
26856149 View in PubMed
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Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in a pooled analysis of agricultural cohorts within the AGRICOH consortium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282689
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2016 Jun;73(6):359-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Maartje Brouwer
Leah Schinasi
Laura E Beane Freeman
Isabelle Baldi
Pierre Lebailly
Gilles Ferro
Karl-Christian Nordby
Joachim Schüz
Maria E Leon
Hans Kromhout
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2016 Jun;73(6):359-67
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Agriculture
Cohort Studies
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Female
France
Humans
Iowa
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Male
Middle Aged
North Carolina
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Pesticides - analysis
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
Self Report
Sex Distribution
United States
Abstract
This paper describes methods developed to assess occupational exposure to pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups, harmonised across cohort studies included in the first AGRICOH pooling project, focused on the risk of lymph-haematological malignancies.
Three prospective agricultural cohort studies were included: US Agricultural Health Study (AHS), French Agriculture and Cancer Study (AGRICAN) and Cancer in the Norwegian Agricultural Population (CNAP). Self-reported pesticide use was collected in AHS. Crop-exposure matrices (CEMs) were developed for AGRICAN and CNAP. We explored the potential impact of these differences in exposure assessment by comparing a CEM approach estimating exposure in AHS with self-reported pesticide use.
In AHS, 99% of participants were considered exposed to pesticides, 68% in AGRICAN and 63% in CNAP. For all cohorts combined (n=316 270), prevalence of exposure ranged from 19% to 59% for 14 chemical groups examined, and from 13% to 46% for 33 active ingredients. Exposures were highly correlated within AGRICAN and CNAP where CEMs were applied; they were less correlated in AHS. Poor agreement was found between self-reported pesticide use and assigned exposure in AHS using a CEM approach resembling the assessment for AGRICAN (? -0.00 to 0.33) and CNAP (? -0.01 to 0.14).
We developed country-specific CEMs to assign occupational exposure to pesticides in cohorts lacking self-reported data on the use of specific pesticides. The different exposure assessment methods applied may overestimate or underestimate actual exposure prevalence, and additional work is needed to better estimate how far the exposure estimates deviate from reality.
PubMed ID
27009271 View in PubMed
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Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72409
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Mar;107(3):233-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
H. Autrup
B. Daneshvar
L O Dragsted
M. Gamborg
M. Hansen
S. Loft
H. Okkels
F. Nielsen
P S Nielsen
E. Raffn
H. Wallin
L E Knudsen
Author Affiliation
Steno Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Mar;107(3):233-8
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Body Burden
Cross-Sectional Studies
DNA Adducts - blood
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Female
Fossil Fuels - adverse effects
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Postal Service - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.
PubMed ID
10064554 View in PubMed
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[Biotesting drawbacks in the hygienic evaluation of sewage].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173819
Source
Gig Sanit. 2005 May-Jun;(3):10-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
G N Krasovskii
N A Egorova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2005 May-Jun;(3):10-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Russia
Sewage - microbiology
Water Microbiology - standards
Abstract
The paper considers unfavorable consequences of the use of biotesting to define the conditions of effluent discharge into water objects. Evaluation of discharge hazard by the index "no toxicity" in the biological tests has been shown to allow both safe 100-1000-fold excesses of hygienic MAC in water; routine short-term experiments on biotest objects are not informative as to the substances that have carcinogenic and other long-term and specific effects; biotesting cannot replace the existing state system of sanitary standards and regulations which remain the basis of the population's health care in the field of water hygiene and sanitary protection of water reservoirs.
PubMed ID
16022244 View in PubMed
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Body mass index and bromoxynil exposure in a sample of rural residents during spring herbicide application.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178325
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004 Sep 10;67(17):1321-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-10-2004
Author
Karen Semchuk
Helen McDuffie
Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan
Allan Cessna
Donald Irvine
Author Affiliation
College of Nursing and Institute of Agricultural, Rural, and Environmental Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. semchuk@sask.usask.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004 Sep 10;67(17):1321-52
Date
Sep-10-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid - blood
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid - blood
Adipose Tissue - chemistry - metabolism
Adolescent
Adult
Agrochemicals - metabolism
Body mass index
Child
Dicamba - blood
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Female
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Herbicides - blood
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitriles - blood
Oxazoles - blood
Pesticide Residues - blood
Predictive value of tests
Propionates - blood
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Saskatchewan
Seasons
Time Factors
Tissue Distribution
Triallate - blood
Trifluralin - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
Bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), a phenolic herbicide, is widely used in production of cereals and other crops. Little is known, however, about bromoxynil exposure in humans. Results of previous research suggest a longer residence time in the body for bromoxynil compared to phenoxy herbicides [e.g., (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)] and that bromoxynil would tend to partition into fatty tissue more so than 2,4-D. In previous research, body mass index (BMI) was found to be an independent predictor of plasma concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), the persistent lipophilic metabolite of the chlorinated pesticide bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT). As part of the Prairie Ecosystem Study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was used to measure concentrations of bromoxynil and seven other herbicides (2,4-D, dicamba, fenoxaprop, MCPA, ethalfluralin, triallate, and trifluralin) in plasma from residents (104 men, 88 women, 24 youths age 12-17 yr) of a cereal-producing region in Saskatchewan, Canada, during spring herbicide application, 1996. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether BMI predicted detection of bromoxynil in plasma from the adults. The prevalence of detection (detection limits: 2-50 microg/L) was markedly higher for bromoxynil (men, 44.2%; women, 14.8%; youths, 20.8%) compared to each of the other herbicides including 2,4-D (men, 16.5%; women, 3.4%; youths, 12.5%) and MCPA (men, 6.8%; women, 1.1%; youths, 4.2%), although bromoxynil is commonly formulated or tank mixed with these herbicides. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the variables BMI, exposure group [bromoxynil applicators, non-applicator family members of bromoxynil applicators, all others (reference group)], and days elapsed since the last use of bromoxynil were found to be independent predictors of detection of bromoxynil, while age, gender, and farm residency were not statistically significant. With adjustment for exposure group [bromoxynil applicators: odds ratio (OR = 24.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.59-61.58; nonapplicator family members of bromoxynil applicators: OR = 3.53, 95% CI = 1.19-10.44; all others (reference group)], the OR for detection of bromoxynil was 2.35 (95% CI = 0.87-6.33) for participants in the middle (25.53-29.00 kg/m2) tertile (men: OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 0.75-10.82; women: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.36-7.40) of BMI and 4.01 (95% CI = 1.46-11.03) for participants in the highest (> 29.00 kg/m2) tertile (men: OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 1.17-18.58; women: OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 0.44-10.99) with participants in the lowest (
PubMed ID
15371235 View in PubMed
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A comparison of two procedures to estimate three basic monitoring landscape metrics for monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257775
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Aug;186(8):4709-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Habib Ramezani
Anton Grafström
Author Affiliation
Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83, Umeå, Sweden, Ramezani.Habib@gmail.com.
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Aug;186(8):4709-18
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
An interesting alternative to wall-to-wall mapping approaches for the estimation of landscape metrics is to use sampling. Sample-based approaches are cost-efficient, and measurement errors can be reduced considerably. The previous efforts of sample-based estimation of landscape metrics have mainly been focused on data collection methods, but in this study, we consider two estimation procedures. First, landscape metrics of interest are calculated separately for each sampled image and then the image values are averaged to obtain an estimate of the entire landscape (separated procedure, SP). Second, metric components are calculated in all sampled images and then the aggregated values are inserted into the landscape metric formulas (aggregated procedure, AP). The national land cover map (NLCM) of Sweden, reflecting the status of land cover in the year 2000, was used to provide population information to investigate the statistical performance of the estimation procedures. For this purpose, sampling simulation with a large number of replications was used. For all three landscape metrics, the second procedure (AP) produced a lower relative RMSE and bias than the first one (SP). A smaller sample unit size (50 ha) produced larger bias than a larger one (100 ha), whereas a smaller sample unit size produced a lower variance than a larger sample unit. The efficiency of a metric estimator is highly related to the degree of landscape fragmentation and the selected procedure. Incorporating information from all of the sampled images into a single one (aggregated procedure, AP) is one way to improve the statistical performance of estimators.
PubMed ID
24723122 View in PubMed
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Correction and comparability of phthalate metabolite measurements of Canadian biomonitoring studies (2007-2012).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105018
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Mar;64:129-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Éric Langlois
Gurusankar Saravanabhavan
Tye E Arbuckle
Suzelle Giroux
Author Affiliation
Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ), Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 Ave Wolfe, Québec, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada. Electronic address: eric.langlois@inspq.qc.ca.
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Mar;64:129-33
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Phthalic Acids - chemistry - urine
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Phthalate metabolites are often measured in biomonitoring studies to evaluate a population's exposure to ubiquitous phthalates. During the course of national biomonitoring studies in Canada, we identified an issue with the accuracy of several commercial phthalate metabolite standards that are commonly used in such studies. The validity of the results from these studies was then questioned. Altogether, three (3) large studies were affected, involving a total of 9302 samples and 105000 individual phthalate metabolite measurements. Data from our previous investigation suggested that the inaccuracies in the commercially-available phthalate metabolite standards were compound- and lot-specific. Therefore, an approach was developed to derive correction factors for each lot of phthalate metabolite standard and was applied to the previously-acquired measurements with the goal of obtaining accurate and comparable data. A statistical analysis was performed to support the approach. It is expected that the corrected phthalate metabolite data from all three Canadian biomonitoring studies are comparable to one another. However, caution is still advised when comparing data obtained from biomonitoring studies for which the calibration standards have not been investigated for their accuracy. Suggestions are made based on quality assurance aspects to improve the validity of phthalate metabolite measurements.
PubMed ID
24513526 View in PubMed
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44 records – page 1 of 5.