This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems.
Recent mild and wet years in Sweden were compared with long observation series of temperature, precipitation and runoff. Spatial average series for northern and southern Sweden were constructed and analyzed for the period 1901-2002. Precipitation increased considerably during the period, whereas temperature and runoff increases were weaker. On average, for the whole country, the differences between the period 1991-2002 and 1901-1990 were +0.7 degrees C for temperature, +11% in precipitation and +7% in runoff. The differences in temperature and precipitation, but not runoff, were significant at the 5% level. However, the 1930s were equally mild, and the runoff was almost as high in the 1920s. The characteristic feature of the past decade is the combination of high temperature, precipitation and runoff. The deviation between the most recent decade and the preceding years is consistent with climate scenario projections for Sweden, but there are also differences in the seasonal pattern.
Satellite telemetry devices collect valuable information concerning the sites visited by animals, including the location of central places like dens, nests, rookeries, or haul-outs. Existing methods for estimating the location of central places from telemetry data require user-specified thresholds and ignore common nuances like measurement error. We present a fully model-based approach for locating central places from telemetry data that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty and uses all of the available locational data. Our general framework consists of an observation model to account for large telemetry measurement error and animal movement, and a highly flexible mixture model specified using a Dirichlet process to identify the location of central places. We also quantify temporal patterns in central place use by incorporating ancillary behavioral data into the model; however, our framework is also suitable when no such behavioral data exist. We apply the model to a simulated data set as proof of concept. We then illustrate our framework by analyzing an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that exhibits fidelity to terrestrial haul-out sites.
Establishment of plans for environmental planning and management requires that a number of natural and societal factors must be taken into consideration. Insights into the inherent dynamics of nature as well as the role that past human activities have played for establishing the current condition of the landscape and the natural environment in general are essential. Many natural and man-made changes occur over time scales of decades or centuries, and these are difficult to comprehend without a historical perspective. Such a perspective can be obtained using palaeoecological studies, i.e. by geochemical and biological analyses of lake sediment and peat deposits. To illustrate the long-term dynamics of nature and particularly the role of man, we present here five case studies from Sweden concerning pollution, lake acidification, lake eutrophication, biodiversity, and landscape dynamics and conservation--topics of broad interests--and discuss benefits of including a longer time perspective in environmental management.
Rapid mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet has sparked interest in its glacial fjords for two main reasons: Increased submarine melting of glaciers terminating in fjords is a plausible trigger for glacier retreat, and the anomalous freshwater discharged from Greenland is transformed by fjord processes before being released into the large-scale ocean. Knowledge of the fjords' dynamics is thus key to understanding ice sheet variability and its impact on climate. Although Greenland's fjords share some commonalities with other fjords, their deep sills and deeply grounded glaciers, the presence of Atlantic and Polar Waters on the continental shelves outside the fjords' mouths, and the seasonal discharge at depth of large amounts of surface melt make them unique systems that do not fit existing paradigms. Major gaps in understanding include the interaction of the buoyancy-driven circulation (forced by the glacier) and shelf-driven circulation, and the dynamics in the near-ice zone. These must be addressed before appropriate forcing conditions can be supplied to ice sheet and ocean/climate models.
In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.
At the Federal state health facility of the Perm Region--the Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology, the authors have carried out chemical and bacteriological tests (n = 410) of 70 raw milk samples taken at various points of sale to examine for compliance with the standards stimulated in the normative SanPin documents. The conventional methods were used to study a number of chemical, biochemical, and bacteriological parameters that characterized freshness, density, acidity, the content of toxic elements, mycotoxins, antibiotics, pesticides, radionuclides, the total number of microbes, etc. The quality and nutritive value of the test milk were characterized according to the findings. The main conclusion of the study was that in quite a number of cases, analyses of the private farm milk sold by farmers on the municipal markets and unpretested by the specialists of the territorial Russian consumer supervisory boards revealed that it was not up to the standards for the quality of the product itself and the material of its package. Unexposed to heat treatment, raw milk should not be used since it may occasionally adversely affect human health.