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32 records – page 1 of 4.

Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289559
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289717
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
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An ultra-clean firn core from the Devon Island Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, retrieved using a titanium drill specially designed for trace element studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82660
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):406-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Zheng J.
Fisher D.
Blake E.
Hall G.
Vaive J.
Krachler M.
Zdanowicz C.
Lam J.
Lawson G.
Shotyk W.
Author Affiliation
GSC Northern Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0E8. jzheng@nrcan.gc.ca
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):406-13
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Arctic Regions
Cadmium - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Ice Cover - chemistry
Lead - analysis
Metals - analysis
Nunavut
Time Factors
Titanium
Abstract
An electromechanical drill with titanium barrels was used to recover a 63.7 m long firn core from Devon Island Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, representing 155 years of precipitation. The core was processed and analysed at the Geological Survey of Canada by following strict clean procedures for measurements of Pb and Cd at concentrations at or below the pg g(-1) level. This paper describes the effectiveness of the titanium drill with respect to contamination during ice core retrieval and evaluates sample-processing procedures in laboratories. The results demonstrate that: (1) ice cores retrieved with this titanium drill are of excellent quality with metal contamination one to four orders of magnitude less than those retrieved with conventional drills; (2) the core cleaning and sampling protocols used were effective, contamination-free, and adequate for analysis of the metals (Pb and Cd) at low pg g(-1) levels; and (3) results from 489 firn core samples analysed in this study are comparable with published data from other sites in the Arctic, Greenland and the Antarctic.
PubMed ID
16528426 View in PubMed
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Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207273
Source
Eur Respir J. 1997 Oct;10(10):2384-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
M S Jaakkola
J J Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1997 Oct;10(10):2384-97
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - analysis
Clinical Trials as Topic
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Finland
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Interviews as Topic - methods
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach.
PubMed ID
9387970 View in PubMed
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Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268526
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9573-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-19-2014
Author
Reggie S Spaulding
Michael D DeGrandpre
James C Beck
Robert D Hart
Brittany Peterson
Eric H De Carlo
Patrick S Drupp
Terry R Hammar
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9573-81
Date
Aug-19-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Colorimetry - methods
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Hawaii
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Oceans and Seas
Oregon
Reproducibility of Results
Seawater - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 µmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 µmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.
PubMed ID
25051401 View in PubMed
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Carcinogens in tobacco smoke: benzo[a]pyrene from Canadian cigarettes and cigarette tobacco.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223458
Source
Am J Public Health. 1992 Jul;82(7):1023-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1992
Author
M J Kaiserman
W S Rickert
Author Affiliation
Tobacco Products Section, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1992 Jul;82(7):1023-6
Date
Jul-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzopyrenes - analysis
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Carcinogens - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods - standards
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Humans
Nicotine - analysis
Plants, Toxic
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Smoke - analysis
Tars - analysis
Tobacco
Abstract
We evaluated the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in the smoke from 35 brands of Canadian cigarettes and 5 brands of Canadian tobaccos for roll-your-own cigarettes. For the cigarettes, mean values of BaP ranged from 3.36 ng to 28.39 ng per cigarette, roughly in proportion with declared tar values. The relationship between declared tar and yields of BaP, however, does not allow accurate prediction of one from the other. For the tobaccos, mean BaP values ranged from 22.92 ng to 26.27 ng (average, 24.7 ng) per cigarette. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to overall exposure.
Notes
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1992 Jan;82(1):107-91536311
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1990 May;80(5):560-42327532
Cites: J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1985 Sep-Oct;68(5):935-404055640
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1988 Jan-Feb;79(1):S33-93355959
PubMed ID
1609904 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of analytical techniques for dynamic trace metal speciation in natural freshwaters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82565
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Mar 15;40(6):1934-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2006
Author
Sigg Laura
Black Frank
Buffle Jacques
Cao Jun
Cleven Rob
Davison William
Galceran Josep
Gunkel Peggy
Kalis Erwin
Kistler David
Martin Michel
Noël Stéphane
Nur Yusuf
Odzak Niksa
Puy Jaume
Van Riemsdijk Willem
Temminghoff Erwin
Tercier-Waeber Mary-Lou
Toepperwien Stefanie
Town Raewyn M
Unsworth Emily
Warnken Kent W
Weng Liping
Xue Hanbin
Zhang Hao
Author Affiliation
Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland. laura.sigg@eawag.ch
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Mar 15;40(6):1934-41
Date
Mar-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Artifacts
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Fresh Water - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Time Factors
Trace Elements - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Several techniques for speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni are used in freshwater systems and compared with respect to their performance and to the metal species detected. The analytical techniques comprise the following: (i) diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT); (ii) gel integrated microelectrodes combined to voltammetric in situ profiling system (GIME-VIP); (iii) stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP); (iv) flow-through and hollow fiber permeation liquid membranes (FTPLM and HFPLM); (v) Donnan membrane technique (DMT); (vi) competitive ligand-exchange/stripping voltammetry (CLE-SV). All methods could be used both under hardwater and under softwater conditions, although in some cases problems with detection limits were encountered at the low total concentrations. The detected Cu, Cd, and Pb concentrations decreased in the order DGT > or = GIME-VIP > or = FTPLM > or = HFPLM approximately = DMT (>CLE-SV for Cd), detected Zn decreased as DGT > or = GIME-VIP and Ni as DGT > DMT, in agreement with the known dynamic features of these techniques. Techniques involving in situ measurements (GIME-VIP) or in situ exposure (DGT, DMT, and HFPLM) appear to be appropriate in avoiding artifacts which may occur during sampling and sample handling.
PubMed ID
16570618 View in PubMed
Less detail

Concentrations, fluxes and field calibration of passive water samplers for pesticides and hazard-based risk assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298274
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Oct 01; 637-638:835-843
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-01-2018
Author
Lutz Ahrens
Atlasi Daneshvar
Anna E Lau
Jenny Kreuger
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: lutz.ahrens@slu.se.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Oct 01; 637-638:835-843
Date
Oct-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Calibration
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Pesticides - analysis
Risk assessment
Sweden
Water
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Three passive sampler types including Chemcatcher® C18, polar organic chemical integrative sampler-hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (POCIS-HLB) and silicone rubber (SR) based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were evaluated for 124 legacy and current used pesticides at two sampling locations in southern Sweden over a period of 6?weeks and compared to time-proportional composite active sampling. In addition, an in situ calibration was performed resulting in median in situ sampling rates (RS, L?day-1) of 0.01 for Chemcatcher® C18, 0.03 for POCIS-HLB, and 0.18 for SR, and median in situ passive sampler-water partition coefficients (log KPW, L?kg-1) of 2.76 for Chemcatcher® C18, 3.87 for POCIS-HLB, and 2.64 for SR. Deisopropylatrazine D5 showed to be suitable as a performance reference compound (PRC) for SR. There was a good agreement between the pesticide concentrations using passive and active sampling. However, the three passive samplers detected 38 pesticides (including 9 priority substances from the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and 2 pyrethriods) which were not detected by the active sampler. The most frequently detected pesticides with a detection frequency of >90% for both sites were atrazine, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, bentazone, chloridazon, isoproturon, and propiconazole. The annual average environmental quality standard (AA-EQS) for inland surface waters of the EU WFD and the risk quotient (RQ) of 1 was exceeded on a number of occasions indicating potential risk for the aquatic environment.
PubMed ID
29758438 View in PubMed
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[Conceptual bases of environmental radiation monitoring of an industrial city].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185912
Source
Gig Sanit. 2003 Jan-Feb;(1):60-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
I P Korenkov
O S Chapkovich
Source
Gig Sanit. 2003 Jan-Feb;(1):60-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Industry
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - methods - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
The mechanisms of radionuclide behavior in different environmental objects have been identified and studied. The radiation characteristics of controlled parameters have been shown to be in the range of mean long-term values that are characteristic for the technogenic background of a capital megapolis, they are not greater than those established by the monitoring standards and those required by regulating legislative documents. Areas have been regionalized by the radiation agent and set off as having high levels of natural radionuclides in the soil and high levels of radon in the soil air. It has been shown that, to ensure radiological monitoring under urban conditions, it is most reasonable to have an irregular network considering the concentration of radiation-risk enterprises, as well as urban architectural designs and division of areas by taking into account regional, geomorphological, and radiological factors. Basic trends in improving radioecological monitoring are given.
PubMed ID
12680107 View in PubMed
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Dual instrument passive acoustic monitoring of belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292731
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 05; 139(5):2697
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2016
Author
Manuel Castellote
Robert J Small
Marc O Lammers
Justin J Jenniges
Jeff Mondragon
Shannon Atkinson
Author Affiliation
National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way Northeast, Seattle, Washington 98115, USA.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 05; 139(5):2697
Date
05-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Alaska
Animals
Beluga Whale - classification - physiology
Echolocation - classification
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Oceans and Seas
Porpoises - classification - physiology
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Species Specificity
Time Factors
Transducers
Vocalization, Animal - classification
Whale, Killer - classification - physiology
Abstract
As part of a long-term research program, Cook Inlet beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) presence was acoustically monitored with two types of acoustic sensors utilized in tandem in moorings deployed year-round: an ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) and a cetacean and porpoise detector (C-POD). The EAR was used primarily to record the calls, whistles, and buzzes produced by belugas and killer whales (Orcinus orca). The C-POD was used to log and classify echolocation clicks from belugas, killer whales, and porpoises. This paper describes mooring packages that maximized the chances of successful long-term data collection in the particularly challenging Cook Inlet environment, and presents an analytical comparison of odontocete detections obtained by the collocated EAR and C-POD instruments from two mooring locations in the upper inlet. Results from this study illustrate a significant improvement in detecting beluga and killer whale presence when the different acoustic signals detected by EARs and C-PODs are considered together. Further, results from concurrent porpoise detections indicating prey competition and feeding interference with beluga, and porpoise displacement due to ice formation are described.
PubMed ID
27250163 View in PubMed
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32 records – page 1 of 4.