The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) method is widely accepted as a quality control method to complement visual assessment, in the specifications of requirements, when purchasing cleaning contractors in Swedish hospitals.
To examine whether the amount of biological load, as measured by ATP on frequently touched near-patient surfaces, had been reduced after an intervention; to evaluate the correlation between visual assessment and ATP levels on the same surfaces; to identify aspects of the performance of the ATP method as a tool in evaluating hospital cleanliness.
A prospective intervention study in three phases was carried out in a medical ward and an intensive care unit (ICU) at a regional hospital in mid-Sweden between 2012 and 2013. Existing cleaning procedures were defined and baseline tests were sampled by visual inspection and ATP measurements of ten frequently touched surfaces in patients' rooms before and after intervention. The intervention consisted of educating nursing staff about the importance of hospital cleaning and direct feedback of ATP levels before and after cleaning.
The mixed model showed a significant decrease in ATP levels after the intervention (P
This study was conducted in a school center that had been the focus of intense public concern over 2 years because of suspected mold and health problems. Because several attempts to find solutions to the problem within the community were not satisfactory, outside specialists were needed for support in solving the problem. The study group consisted of experts in civil engineering, indoor mycology, and epidemiology. The studies were conducted in close cooperation with the city administration. Structures at risk were opened, moisture and temperature were measured, and the causes of damage were analyzed. Microbial samples were taken from the air, surfaces, and materials. Health questionnaires were sent to the schoolchildren and personnel. Information on the measurements and their results was released regularly to school employees, students and their parents, and to the media. Repairs were designed on the basis of this information. Moisture damage was caused mainly by difficult moisture conditions at the building site, poor ventilation, and water leaks. Fungal genera (concentrations
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1992 Dec 15;127(1-2):79-891480960
The attitudes and behaviors of chiropractors regarding table disinfection have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the bacterial contaminants present on treatment tables in private chiropractic clinics, (2) the effectiveness of the paper barrier in preventing bacterial deposition, and (3) chiropractors' attitudes and practices regarding table disinfection.
Defined portions of treatment tables from 14 private clinics in Alberta, Canada were sampled for the presence of bacteria. Growth characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used for bacterial identification. In addition, a 12-item survey was administered to southern Alberta chiropractors (n = 79; 81% response rate) inquiring about their attitudes and behaviors regarding table disinfection.
Respondents favored the idea of table disinfection (84%), but only 62% had a routine disinfection protocol. Table sampling revealed the presence of a number of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which were recovered from 3 separate clinics. The paper covering on table headpieces was an effective barrier to bacteria.
Chiropractors have a positive attitude regarding disinfection; however, the risk of infection from treatment tables remains. Modification of the positioning of facial piece paper may be indicated, along with increased emphasis on disinfection.
In March-April 1987 an outbreak of Legionella infection was registered among 236 workers at a rubber factory in Armavir. An ARD-like syndrome and acute alveolitis were the main variants of the clinical course of the infection. Legionella infection was diagnosed on the basis of a fourfold and greater increase in the titers of antibodies to L. pneumophila, serogroup 1, as determined in the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In urine samples obtained from patients Legionella antigen was determined with the use of EIA techniques. The culture of L. pneumophila, serogroup 1, was isolated from the recycling-type water supply system of the factory. The outbreak was stopped by a complex of sanitary, hygienic and epidemic control measures.
A nosocomial outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum subvar. perforans is reported in a nursing home for the elderly. The outbreak affected six residents and persisted for nine months despite remedial medical and sanitary measures. In a survey designed to determine the potential role of fomites in disease transmission, 129 environmental sites were sampled. A high proportion (22.3%) of the samples yielded T. tonsurans, including samples from beds, floors, and washroom facilities. Methods for the control of dermatophyte outbreaks in chronic care institutions are discussed.
At the period of 1982 - 2003, morbidity rate in pseudotuberculosis and the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis culture rates in groups of servicemen (from different abiotic objects, from humans and small rodents) in different geographic zones were studied. The cases of the isolation of Y. pseudotuberculosis were most frequently registered in groups of servicemen in the Far East and the Kola Peninsula. In these regions the highest morbidity rate in pseudotuberculosis was registered among servicemen. The contamination rate of vegetables during the year was always greater than in other objects under study, including small rodents. The study demonstrated that in the Armed Forces could appear, temporary and relatively constant anthropurgic foci of pseudotuberculosis even in non endemic regions. They were formed in the objects of the food supply service due to the supply of contaminated vegetables. Synanthropic rodents played a secondary role, though they too facilitated the formation of new anthropurgic foci. Under definite conditions anthropurgic foci could exist autonomously, independently of natural foci.
Antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter jejuni collected from the environment outside four broiler houses (n = 63) and from the environment inside these broiler houses (including broiler droppings) (n = 36) from May to September 2004 was studied and compared with isolates from Norwegian broilers analyzed within the frame of the Norwegian monitoring program of antimicrobial resistance in feed, food, and animals (NORM-VET) in 2004 (n = 75). The MICs of oxytetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, and nalidixic acid were obtained by the broth microdilution method VetMIC. The present study, which to our knowledge is the first Norwegian study on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from the environment of broiler houses, revealed a very low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni from the broilers and broiler house environments studied. All isolates originating from the four broiler houses studied were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, except for one isolate from the outdoor environment (courtyard soil), which was resistant to oxytetracycline (MIC, 8 mg/liter). For the isolates from broilers (NORM-VET), low prevalences of resistance to oxytetracycline (1.3%) and ampicillin (4%) were observed. No quinolone resistance was observed. The results for the broiler isolates are in agreement with the earlier findings of a very low prevalence of resistance in Campylobacter from broilers in Norway, which reflects the low usage of antimicrobials in Norwegian broiler production. Furthermore, the present data are in accordance with antimicrobial susceptibility data for C. jejuni from domestically acquired human cases.
The human oral cavity has an indigenous microbiota known to include a robust community of viruses. Very little is known about how oral viruses are spread throughout the environment or to which viruses individuals are exposed. We sought to determine whether shared living environment is associated with the composition of human oral viral communities by examining the saliva of 21 human subjects; 11 subjects from different households and 10 unrelated subjects comprising 4 separate households. Although there were many viral homologues shared among all subjects studied, there were significant patterns of shared homologues in three of the four households that suggest shared living environment affects viral community composition. We also examined CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) loci, which are involved in acquired bacterial and archaeal resistance against invading viruses by acquiring short viral sequences. We analyzed 2?065?246 CRISPR spacers from 5 separate repeat motifs found in oral bacterial species of Gemella, Veillonella, Leptotrichia and Streptococcus to determine whether individuals from shared living environments may have been exposed to similar viruses. A significant proportion of CRISPR spacers were shared within subjects from the same households, suggesting either shared ancestry of their oral microbiota or similar viral exposures. Many CRISPR spacers matched virome sequences from different subjects, but no pattern specific to any household was found. Our data on viromes and CRISPR content indicate that shared living environment may have a significant role in determining the ecology of human oral viruses.
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 29;99(22):14250-512384570
A system for controlling the epidemic process of hospital infections in maternity hospitals and departments of infant pathology has been created. The specific feature of the proposed method is the prospective character of epidemiological surveillance: from the cause to the effect, and not vice versa. This is achieved by using the results of follow-up of the preconditions of the epidemic process activation (preterm delivery, gestosis, dry labor, birth injuries in mothers and infants) and the precursors of the beginning aggravation of the epidemic situation (the level of the contamination of infants with hospital microflora). Early information in this respect will help foresee the possible activation of the epidemic process of hospital infections and take necessary measures when infant infection rate is just elevated.